Optimal Er:YAG laser irradiation parameters for debridement of microstructured fixture surfaces of titanium dental implants
- 767 Downloads
Er:YAG laser (ErL) irradiation has been reported to be effective for treating peri-implant disease. The present study seeks to evaluate morphological and elemental changes induced on microstructured surfaces of dental endosseous implants by high-pulse-repetition-rate ErL irradiation and to determine the optimal irradiation conditions for debriding contaminated microstructured surfaces. In experiment 1, dual acid-etched microstructured implants were irradiated by ErL (pulse energy, 30–50 mJ/pulse; repetition rate, 30 Hz) with and without water spray and for used and unused contact tips. Experiment 2 compared the ErL treatment with conventional mechanical treatments (metal/plastic curettes and ultrasonic scalers). In experiment 3, five commercially available microstructures were irradiated by ErL light (pulse energy, 30–50 mJ/pulse; pulse repetition rate, 30 Hz) while spraying water. In experiment 4, contaminated microstructured surfaces of three failed implants were debrided by ErL irradiation. After the experiments, all treated surfaces were assessed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and/or energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The stereomicroscopy, SEM, and EDS results demonstrate that, unlike mechanical treatments, ErL irradiation at 30 mJ/pulse and 30 Hz with water spray induced no color or morphological changes to the microstructures except for the anodized implant surface, which was easily damaged. The optimized irradiation parameters effectively removed calcified deposits from contaminated titanium microstructures without causing substantial thermal damage. ErL irradiation at pulse energies below 30 mJ/pulse (10.6 J/cm2/pulse) and 30 Hz with water spray in near-contact mode seems to cause no damage and to be effective for debriding microstructured surfaces (except for anodized microstructures).
KeywordsEr:YAG laser High pulse repetition rate Implant Peri-implantitis Titanium Microstructure
This study was supported in part by a grant from the Global Center of Excellence Program for International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases at Tokyo Medical and Dental University and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 22592308) to A.A. from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The authors wish to thank Drs. Yasushi Yoda, Kenichiro Ejiri, and Masanori Sawabe of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan for their kind help. The Osseotite® implants were provided by Bioment 3i Japan (Osaka, Japan).
- 26.Akiyama F, Aoki A, Miura-Uchiyama M, Sasaki K, Ichinose S, Umeda M, Ishikawa I, Izumi Y (2011) In vitro studies of the ablation mechanism of periodontopathic bacteria and decontamination effect on periodontally diseased root surfaces by erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Lasers Med Sci 26:193–204. Erratum in: Lasers Med Sci 2011; 2026(2012): 2277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Eguro T, Aoki A, Maeda T, Takasaki A, Hasegawa M, Ogawa M, Suzuki T, Yonemoto K, Ishikawa I, Izumi Y, Katsuumi I (2009) Energy output reduction and surface alteration of quartz and sapphire tips following Er:YAG laser contact irradiation for tooth enamel ablation. Lasers Surg Med 41:595–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Matthew J, Donachie (2000) Titanium: a technical guide. ASM International, Netherlands, pp 1–2Google Scholar