Effects of low-level laser therapy on ROS homeostasis and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 in skeletal muscle during the repair process
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 in the gastrocnemius muscles of rats following contusion. Muscle regeneration involves cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and is regulated by growth factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that LLLT promotes skeletal muscle regeneration and accelerates tissue repair. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no lesion, untreated, n = 6), contusion group (n = 48), and contusion-plus-LLLT group (n = 42). Gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) laser irradiation (635 nm; beam spot, 0.4 cm2; output power, 7 mW; power density, 17.5 mW/cm2; 20 min) was administered to the gastrocnemius contusion for 20 min daily for 10 days. Muscle remodeling was evaluated at 0 h and 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury. Hematoxylin and eosin and Van Gieson staining were used to evaluate regeneration and fibrosis; muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected via biochemical methods; expression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were investigated via immunohistochemistry. The results showed that LLLT markedly promoted the regeneration of muscle and reduced scar formation. LLLT also significantly enhanced muscle SOD activity and significantly decreased muscle MDA levels 1, 2, and 3 days after injury. LLLT increased the expression of IGF-1 2, 3, and 7 days after injury and decreased the expression of IGF-1 21 and 28 days after injury. LLLT decreased the expression of TGF-β1 3 and 28 days after injury but increased expression at 7 and 14 days after injury. Our study showed that LLLT could modulate the homeostasis of ROS and of the growth factors IGF-1 and TGF-β1, which are known to play important roles in the repair process. This may constitute a new preventive approach to muscular fibrosis.
KeywordsIGF-1 TGF-β1 ROS Low-level laser therapy Skeletal muscle
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (60878061)
- 1.Fillipin LI, Mauriz JL, Vedovelli K, Moreira AJ, Zettler CG, Lech O, Marroni NP, Gonzalez-Gallego J (2005) Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) prevents oxidative stress and reduces fibrosis in rat traumatized Achilles tendon. Lasers Surg Med 37(4):293–300. doi: 10.1002/lsm.20225 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Rizzi CF, Mauriz JL, Freitas Correa DS, Moreira AJ, Zettler CG, Filippin LI, Marroni NP, Gonzalez-Gallego J (2006) Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in traumatized muscle. Lasers Surg Med 38(7):704–713. doi: 10.1002/lsm.20371 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Katz TM, Glaich AS, Goldberg LH, Friedman PM (2010) 595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel. J Am Acad Dermatol 62(6):1045–1049. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2009.06.054 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Luciani A, Villella VR, Esposito S, Brunetti-Pierri N, Medina D, Settembre C, Gavina M, Pulze L, Giardino I, Pettoello-Mantovani M, D'Apolito M, Guido S, Masliah E, Spencer B, Quaratino S, Raia V, Ballabio A, Maiuri L (2010) Defective CFTR induces aggresome formation and lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis through ROS-mediated autophagy inhibition. Nat Cell Biol 12(9):863–875. doi: 10.1038/ncb2090 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.De Minicis S, Seki E, Paik YH, Osterreicher CH, Kodama Y, Kluwe J, Torozzi L, Miyai K, Benedetti A, Schwabe RF, Brenner DA (2010) Role and cellular source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology 52(4):1420–1430. doi: 10.1002/hep.23804 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Sedeek M, Callera G, Montezano A, Gutsol A, Heitz F, Szyndralewiez C, Page P, Kennedy CR, Burns KD, Touyz RM, Hebert RL (2010) Critical role of Nox4-based NADPH oxidase in glucose-induced oxidative stress in the kidney: implications in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 299(6):F1348–F1358. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00028.2010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Pelosi L, Giacinti C, Nardis C, Borsellino G, Rizzuto E, Nicoletti C, Wannenes F, Battistini L, Rosenthal N, Molinaro M, Musaro A (2007) Local expression of IGF-1 accelerates muscle regeneration by rapidly modulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. FASEB J 21(7):1393–1402. doi: 10.1096/fj.06-7690com PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Karu T (1998) The science of low-power laser therapy. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 38.Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Martins MD, Silva JA Jr, da Silva TD, Piovesan RF, Pavesi VC, Bussadori SK, Fernandes KP (2011) Effects of low-level laser therapy on expression of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in skeletal muscle during the repair process. Lasers Med Sci 26(3):335–340. doi: 10.1007/s10103-010-0850-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar