Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in human progressive-intensity running: effects on exercise performance, skeletal muscle status, and oxidative stress
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on exercise performance, oxidative stress, and muscle status in humans. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with 22 untrained male volunteers. LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW, 30 J in each site, 30 s of irradiation in each site) using a multi-diode cluster (with five spots - 6 J from each spot) at 12 sites of each lower limb (six in quadriceps, four in hamstrings, and two in gastrocnemius) was performed 5 min before a standardized progressive-intensity running protocol on a motor-drive treadmill until exhaustion. We analyzed exercise performance (VO2 max, time to exhaustion, aerobic threshold and anaerobic threshold), levels of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the markers of muscle damage creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Compared to placebo, active LLLT significantly increased exercise performance (VO2 max p = 0.01; time to exhaustion, p = 0.04) without changing the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds. LLLT also decreased post-exercise lipid (p = 0.0001) and protein (p = 0.0230) damages, as well as the activities of SOD (p = 0.0034), CK (p = 0.0001) and LDH (p = 0.0001) enzymes. LLLT application was not able to modulate CAT activity. The use of LLLT before progressive-intensity running exercise increases exercise performance, decreases exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage, suggesting that the modulation of the redox system by LLLT could be related to the delay in skeletal muscle fatigue observed after the use of LLLT.
KeywordsLLLT Progressive-intensity exercise Oxidative stress Muscle damage
The authors would like to thank the volunteers who participated in the study, the staff of the Laboratories of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants and the Sports Medicine Institute, especially Juliano Augusto Ziembowicz and Luciana Maria Machado. We also thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES-Brazil) and Caxias do Sul University for their support.
- 2.Halliwell B, Gutteridge JC (2000) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 5.Ivey FM, Roth SM, Ferrell RE, Tracy BL, Lemmer JT, Hurlbut DE, Martel GF, Siegel EL, Fozard JL, Jeffrey Metter E, Fleg JL, Hurley BF (2000) Effects of age, gender, and myostatin genotype on the hypertrophic response to heavy resistance strength training. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Baroni BM, De Marchi T, Rossi RP, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, de Godoi V, Basso M, Mancalossi JL, Bjordal JM (2009) Comparison between single-diode low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and LED multi-diode (cluster) therapy (LEDT) applications before high-intensity exercise. Photomed Laser Surg 27:617–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Baroni BM, De Marchi T, Taufer D, Manfro DS, Rech M, Danna V, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, Marcos RL, Ramos L, Bjordal JM (2009) Effect of 830 nm low-level laser therapy applied before high-intensity exercises on skeletal muscle recovery in athletes. Lasers Med Sci 24:857–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Whipp BJ (1987) Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- 11.Wills ED (1996) Mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in animal tissues. Biochem J 99:667–676Google Scholar
- 15.Huang YY, Chen AC, Carroll JD, Hamblin MR (2009) Biphasic dose response in low-level light therapy. Dose Response 7:358–383Google Scholar
- 16.Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Frigo L, De Marchi T, Rossi RP, de Godoi V, Tomazoni SS, da Silva DP, Basso M, Lotti Filho P, Corsetti FV, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM (2010) Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to post-exercise recovery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 40:524–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.International Association of Athletics Federations – IAAF (2010) Available at: http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/index.html. Accessed: August 20
- 19.Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Rossi RP, De Marchi T, Baroni BM, de Godoi V, Marcos RL, Ramos L, Bjordal JM (2009) Effect of cluster multi-diode light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and skeletal muscle recovery in humans. Lasers Surg Med 41:572–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar