Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 473–477 | Cite as

Intra-oral laser welding: an in vitro evaluation of thermal increase

  • C. Fornaini
  • C. Bertrand
  • J. P. Rocca
  • P. Mahler
  • M. Bonanini
  • P. Vescovi
  • E. Merigo
  • S. Nammour
Original Article

Abstract

The neodymium:yttrium–aluminium–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser is currently used in dental laboratories to weld metals on dental prostheses. Recently, the use of Nd:YAG has been suggested so that dentists themselves can repair broken fixed, removable and orthodontic prostheses by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate, through a four k-type thermocouple system on calf jaws, the thermal increase in the biological structures close to the metal parts during laser welding. We put two hemispherical metal plates onto mandibular molars and then laser welded them at three points with a four k-thermocouple system to determine the thermal rise in the pulp chamber, sulcus, root and bone. This procedure was carried out on 12 samples, and the results were processed. The highest values of thermal increase were found in the pulp chamber, 1.5°C; sulcus, 0.7°C; root, 0.3°C; and bone, 0.3°C. This study showed that thermal increases in pulp chamber, sulcus, root and bone were biologically compatible and that intra-oral laser welding, at the parameters used in this work, seems to be harmless to the biological structures close to the welding and thermally affected zones.

Keywords

Neodymium:yttrium–aluminium–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser Temperature increase Thermocouple Laser welding Intra-oral welding Jaws 

References

  1. 1.
    Geusic JE, Marcos HM, Van Uitert LG (1964) Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets. Appl Phys Lett 4:182–184. doi:10.1063/1.1753928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koechner W (1988) Solid-state laser engineering, 2nd edn. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yariv A (1989) Quantum electronics, 3rd edn. WileyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weisman C (1976) Welding handbook, 7th edn. American Welding Society, Miami, FLGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cary HB (2002) Modern welding technology. Prentice Hall, Columbus, OHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gordon TE, Smith DL (1970) A laser in the dental lab. Laser Focus Mag 37–39Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fusayama T, Wakumoto S, Hosoda H (1964) Accuracy of fixed partial dentures made by various soldering techniques and one-piece casting. J Prosthet Dent 14:334–342. doi:10.1016/0022-3913(64)90094-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Apotheker H, Nishimura I, Seerattan C (1984) Laser welded vs soldered nonprecious alloy dental bridges: a comparative study. Lasers Surg Med 4:207–213. doi:10.1002/lsm.1900040213 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berg E, Wagnere WC, Davik G, Dootz ER (1995) Mechanical properties of laser welded cast and wrought titanium. J Prosthet Dent 74:250–257. doi:10.1016/S0022-3913(05)80131-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Benthem H (1991) Advantages of laser welding compared to conventional joining. Quintessenz Zahntech 17:1178–1193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Santos M, Acciari HA, Vercik LCO, Guastaldi AC (2003) Laser weld: microstructure and corrosion study of Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy of the dental application. Mater Lett 57:1888–1893. doi:10.1016/S0167-577X(02)01095-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bertrand C, Le Petitcorps Y, Albingre L, Dupuis V (2001) The laser welding technique applied to the non precious dental alloys: procedure and results. Br Dent J 190:255–257. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4800942a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bertrand C (1995) La soudure au laser: une technique d’avenir au laboratoire de prothèse. Arts Tech Dent 6:363–368Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shinoda T, Matsunaga SM (1991) Laser welding of titanium. Weld Int 5:346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Borgstedt T (1991) New technology for preparation of titanium crowns and bridges. Dent Labor (Munch) 39:1205–1210Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frolov VA, Mammaev VS, Bronin NS, Volkov PG (1994) Light beam welding thin sheets of titanium alloy. Weld Int 8:41–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sjogren G, Anderson M, Bergman M (1988) Laser welding of titanium in dentistry. Acta Odontol Scand 46:247–253. doi:10.3109/00016358809004774 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walter M, Reppel PD, Bonning K, Freesmayer WB (1999) Six year follow-up of titanium and high-gold porcelain-fused-to-metal fixed partial dentures. J Oral Rehabil 26:91–96. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2842.1999.00373.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang RR, Chang CT (1998) Thermal modeling of laser welding for titanium dental restorations. J Prosthet Dent 79:335–341. doi:10.1016/S0022-3913(98)70247-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dobberstein H, Orlick H, Zuhrt R (1990) The welding of cobalt-chromium, nickel-chromium and silver-palladium alloys using a solid state laser. Zahn Mund Kieferheilkd Zentralbl 78:259–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hofman J (1992) Dental laser welding technique. Procedural report.1. Quality, expense, and risks of innovative bonding technique. Dental Lab 40:1221–1224Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hofmann J (1992) Dental laser welding technique. Procedural report 2. Indications for use of innovative technique. Dent Labor (Munch) 40:1321–1328Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bertrand C, Le Petitcorps Y, Albingre L, Dupuis V (2004) Optimization of operator and physical parameters for laser welding of dental materials. Br Dent J 196:413–418. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4811138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    White JM, Goodis HE, Rose CL (1991) Use of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser for intraoral soft tissue surgery. Lasers Surg Med 11:455–461. doi:10.1002/lsm.1900110511 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moshonov J, Ørstavik D, Yamauchi S, Pettiette M, Trope M (1995) Nd:YAG laser irradiation in root canal disinfection. Endod Dent Traumatol 11:220–224. doi:10.1111/j.1600-9657.1995.tb00492.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cobb CM, McCawley TK, Killoy WJ (1992) A preliminary study on the effects of the Nd:YAG laser on root surfaces and subgingival microflora in vivo. J Periodontol 63:701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fornaini C, Bertrand C, Rocca JP, Bonanini M, Nammour S (2009) Laser welding in the dental office: a new technique. Photomed Laser Surg (in press)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Asin M (2008) Mise en charge immédiate par électro-soudage en bouche sous argon. Implantol Rev Chir Prothése Implant 6:7–13Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bertelè G, Pasqualini ME, Bilucaglia L, Mirandola A (2006) Oral implantology: from hypothesis to immediate loading. Eur J Implant Prosthodont 2:65–87Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hruska AR, Borelli P (1993) Intra-oral welding of implants for an immediate load with overdentures. J Oral Implantol 19:34–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shibuya I, Nishiyama N, Hayakawa T, Koishi I, Nemoto K (2004) Intraoral laser welding—part 1. Effect of laser irradiation on temperature rise. J Jpn Dent Mater 23:495–500Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haney SC, Meiers JC (1996) In vitro study of intraoral welding. Quintessence Int 27:841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zach L, Cohen G (1965) Pulp response to externally applied heat. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 19:515–530. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(65)90015-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oelgiesser D, Blasbalg J, Ben-Amar A (2003) Cavity preparation by Er-YAG laser on pulpal temperature rise. Am J Dent 16:96–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Martins GR, Cavalcanti BN, Rode SM (2006) Increases in intrapulpal temperature during polymerization of composite resin. J Prosthet Dent 96:328–331. doi:10.1016/j.prosdent.2006.09.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sulieman M, Rees JS, Addy M (2006) Surface and pulp chamber temperature rises during tooth bleaching using a diode laser: a study in vitro. Br Dent J 200:631–634. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4813644 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Fornaini
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • C. Bertrand
    • 2
  • J. P. Rocca
    • 2
  • P. Mahler
    • 2
  • M. Bonanini
    • 3
  • P. Vescovi
    • 3
  • E. Merigo
    • 3
  • S. Nammour
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dental Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LiegeLiegeBelgium
  2. 2.Université de Nice-Sophie AntipolisNiceFrance
  3. 3.Università di ParmaParmaItaly
  4. 4.Fiorenzuola D’ArdaItaly

Personalised recommendations