Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 61–65 | Cite as

The effect of 904 nm low level laser on condylar growth in rats

  • Massoud Seifi
  • Arezoo Maghzi
  • Norbert Gutknecht
  • Maziar Mir
  • Mohammad Asna-Ashari
Original Article


A growth center of the mandible that contributes to its length and height is the mandibular condyle. Proliferation of prechondroblasts, followed by synthesis of the extracellular matrix and hypertrophy of the cartilage cells, governs the major part of condylar growth. The sample consisted of 54 male rats, weighing between 60 g and 80 g, divided randomly into three groups. Group I was the control group, group II was irradiated bilaterally, and group III was irradiated on the right side. Laser irradiation (λ = 904 nm, 2000 Hz, pulse length 200 ns and output power 4 mW) was performed, and the procedure was repeated after a 50-day interval. Two months later, the rats were killed. In a single blind manner the lengths of denuded mandibles and the lengths of mandibles on soft tissue were measured. The growth of the mandibles in the unilaterally irradiated group (P < 0.001) and the bilaterally irradiated group (P < 0.05) was significantly more than that in the control group. There was no significant difference between right and left condylar growth in the bilaterally irradiated group (P = 0.3). Soft tissue analysis also verified these results (P < 0.001). Histomorphometric results also revealed a significant difference between laser-irradiated groups and the control group (P < 0.01). We concluded that particular laser irradiation with the chosen parameters can stimulate condylar growth and subsequently cause mandibular advancement. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that low level laser irradiation can be used for further improvement of mandibular retrognathism.


Low level laser Condylar growth Chondroblastic activity Condyle Retrognathism 


  1. 1.
    Kuhberg AJ (2001) Steps in orthodontic treatment. In: Bishara SE (ed) Textbook of orthodontics. Saunders, St. Louis, pp 232–245Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spalding P (2001) Treatment of class II malocclusions. In: Bishara SE (ed) Textbook of orthodontics. Saunders, St. Louis, pp 324–374Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nicolau RA, Jorgetti V, Rigau J, Pacheco MTT, Reis LM, Zangaro RA (2003) Effect of low-power GaAlAs laser (660 nm) on bone structure and cell activity: an experimental animal study. Lasers Med Sci 18:89–94. doi:10.1007/s10103–003–0260-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guzzardella GA, Fini M, Torricelli P, Giavaresi G, Giardino R (2002) Laser stimulation on bone defect healing: an in-vitro study. Lasers Med Sci 17:216–220. doi:10.1007/s101030200031 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lirani-Galvão AP, Jorgetti V, Da Silva OL (2006) Comparative study of how low level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound affect bone repair in rats. Photomed Laser Surg 24:735–740. doi:10.1089/pho.2006.24.735 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khadra M, Kasem N, Haanaes HR, Ellingsen JE, Lyngstadaas SP (2004) Enhancement of bone formation in rat calvarial bone defects using low-level laser therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 97:693–700. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2003.11.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    David R, Nissan M, Cohen I, Soudry M (1996) Effect of low-power HeNe laser on fracture healing in rats. Lasers Surg Med 19:458–464. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096–9101(1996)19:4<458::AID-LSM12>3.0.CO;2-Z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Renno AC, McDonnell PA, Parizotto NA, Laakso EL (2007) The effects of laser irradiation on osteoblast and osteosarcoma cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. Photomed Laser Surg 25:275–280. doi:10.1089/pho.2007.2055 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morrone G, Guzzardella GA, Torricelli P, Fini M, Giardino R (1998) In vitro experimental research of rabbit chondrocytes biostimulation with diode laser GaAlAs: a preliminary study. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 26:437–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Almeida-Lopes L, Rigau J, Zangaro RA, Guidugli-Neto J, Jaeger MM (2001) Comparison of the low level laser therapy effects on cultured human gingival fibroblasts proliferation using different irradiance and same fluence. Lasers Surg Med 29:179–184. doi:10.1002/lsm.1107 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kreisler M, Christoffers AB, Al-Haj H, Willershausen B, D’Hoedt B (2002) Low level 809-nm diode laser-induced in vitro stimulation of the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts. Lasers Surg Med 30:365–369. doi:10.1002/lsm.10060 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guzzardella GA, Morrone G, Torricelli P, Rocca M, Tigani D, Brodano GB, et al (2000) Assessment of low-power biostimulation on chondral lesions: an “in vivo” experimental study. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 28:441–449CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morrone G, Guzzardella GA, Torricelli P, Rocca M, Tigani D, Brodano GB, et al (2000) Osteochondral lesion repair of the knee in the rabbit after low-power diode GaAlAs laser biostimulation: an experimental study. Artif Cell Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 28:321–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Michel JL (2004) Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with 585 nm collagen remodeling pulsed dye laser. Eur J Dermatol 14:103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Michel JL (2003) Treatment of hemangiomas with 595 nm pulsed dye laser dermobeam. Eur J Dermatol 13:136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kanyo K, Konc J (2003) A follow-up study of children born after dye laser assisted hatching. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 110:176–180. doi:10.1016/S0301–2115(03)00215-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Pedro JA, Martin AP, Blanco M, Salvado M, Perez MA, Cardoso F, et al (2007) Histomorphometric study of femoral heads in hip osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Histol Histopathol 22:1091–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hill PA, Orth M (1998) Bone remodeling. Br J Orthod 25:102–107. doi:10.1093/ortho/25.2.101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhou Yi, Jiang T, Qian M, Zhang X, Wang J, Shi B, et al (2007) Roles of bone scintigraphy and resonance frequency analysis in evaluating osseointegration of endosseous implant. Biomaterials 29:461–474. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.10.021
  20. 20.
    Parfitt AM, Drenzer MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, et al (1987) Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 2:595–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dew DK, Supik L, Darrow CR (1993) Tissue repair using laser: a review. Orthopedics 16:581–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dortbudak O, Haas R, Mallath-Pokorny G (2000) Biostimulation of bone marrow cells with a diode soft laser. Clin Oral Implants Res 11:540–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silva Junior AN, Pinheiro ALB, Oliveira MG, Weismann R, Pedreira Ramalho LM, Amadei Nicolau R, et al (2002) Computerized morphometric assessment of the effect of low-level laser therapy on bone repair: an experimental animal study. J Clin Laser Med Surg 20:83–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ozawa Y, Shimizu N, Mishima H, Kariya G, Yamaguchi M, Takiguchi H, et al (1995) Stimulatory effects of low-power laser irradiation on bone formation in vitro. Proc SPIE 1984: 281–288Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pinheiro ALB, Gerbi ME (2006) Photoengineering of bone repair processes. Photomed Laser Surg 24:169–178. doi:10.1089/pho.2006.24.169 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aihara N, Yamaguchi M, Kasai K (2006) Low-energy irradiation stimulates formation of osteoclast-like cells via RANK expression in vitro. Lasers Med Sci 21:24–33. doi:10.1007/s10103–005–0368–4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khadra M, Ronold HJ, Lyngstadaas SP, Ellingsen JE, Haanas HR (2004) Low-level laser therapy stimulates bone–implant interaction: an experimental study in rabbits. Clin Oral Implants Res 5:325–332. doi:10.1111/j.1600–0501.2004.00994.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massoud Seifi
    • 1
  • Arezoo Maghzi
    • 1
  • Norbert Gutknecht
    • 2
  • Maziar Mir
    • 2
  • Mohammad Asna-Ashari
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Orthodontics, Center for Dental ResearchShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Conservative DentistryRWTH University HospitalAachenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Endodontics, Center for Dental ResearchShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations