Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 365–374

Visualising the procedures in the influence of water on the ablation of dental hard tissue with erbium:yttrium–aluminium–garnet and erbium, chromium:yttrium–scandium–gallium-garnet laser pulses

  • Maziar Mir
  • Norbert Gutknecht
  • Reinhart Poprawe
  • Leon Vanweersch
  • Friedrich Lampert
Original Article

Abstract

The exact mechanism of the ablation of tooth hard tissue with most common wavelengths, which are 2,940 nm and 2,780 nm, is not yet clear. There are several different theories, but none of them has yet been established. Concepts and methods of looking at these mechanisms have been based on heat formation and transformation, and mathematical calculations evaluating the outcome of ablation, such as looking at the shape of cuts. This study provides a new concept, which is the monitoring of the direct interactions between laser light, water and enamel, with a high-speed camera. For this purpose, both the above-mentioned wavelengths were examined. Bovine anterior teeth were prepared as thin slices. Each imaged slice had a thickness close to that of the beam diameter so that the ablation effect could be shown in two dimensional pictures. The single images were extracted from the video-clips and then were animated. The following steps, explaining the ablation procedures during each pulse, were seen and reported: (1) low-output energy intensity in the first pulses that did not lead to an ablative effect; (2) bubble formation with higher output energy density; (3) the tooth surface during the pulse was covered with the plume of vapour (comparable with a cloud), and the margins of ablation on the tooth were not clear; (4) when the vapour bubble (cloud) was collapsing, an additional ablative process at the surface could be seen.

Keywords

Erbium:yttrium–aluminium–garnet (Er:YAG) laser Erbium, chromium:yttrium–scandium–gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser Ablation Enamel High-speed camera 

References

  1. 1.
    Altshuler GB, Belikov AV, Erofeev AV (1996) Comparative study of contact and noncontact operation mode of hard tooth tissues Er-laser processing. The 5th International Congress of the International Society of Laser Dentistry, pp 21–25 (Jerusalem, Israel)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Altshuler GB, Belikov AV, Sinelnik YA (2001) A laser-abrasive method for the cutting of enamel and dentine. Laser Surg Med 28:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fried D (2000) IR laser ablation of dental enamel: proposed mechanisms (invited paper). SPIE Conference 3910 Lasers in Dentistry VI. 23–24 JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fried D, Ashouri N, Breunig TM, Shori RK (2002) Mechanism of water augmentation during IR laser irradiation of dental enamel. Lasers Surg Med 31:186–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Staninec M, Xie J, Le CQ, Fried D (2003) Influence of an optically thick water layer on the bond-strength of composite resin to dental enamel after IR laser ablation. Lasers Surg Med 33:264–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ith M, Pratisto H, Altermatt HJ, Frenz M, Weber HP (1994) Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of bio-tissue under water with pulsed erbium-laser radiation. Appl Phys B 59:621–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scammon RJ, Chapyak EJ, Godwin RP, Vogel A (1998) Simulations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles produced in water by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Highlights of the Laser–Tissue Interactions 9th conference, San Jose CA, 26–28 January 1998. SPIE Proceedings vol 3254Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jansen ED, Frenz M, Kadipasaoglu KA, Pfefer TJ, Altermatt HJ, Motamedi M, Welch AJ (1997) Laser-tissue interaction during transmyocardial laser revascularization. Ann Thorac Surg 63:640–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eversole LR, Rizoiu I (1995) Preliminary investigations on the utility of an erbium chromium:YSGG laser. J Calif Dent Assoc 23:41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Majaron B, Lukac M (1999) Thermo-mechanical laser ablation of hard biological tissue :modeling the micro-explosions. SPIE 3593:184–195Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Majaron B, Sustercic D, Lukac M (1997) Debris screening and heat diffusion in Er:YAG drilling of hard dental tissues. SPIE 2973:11–22Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Majaron B, Sustercic D, Lukac M (1997) Influence of water spray on Er:YAG ablation of hard dental tissues. in: Laffitte F, Hoenigsmann H, Fercher AF et al (eds) Medical Applications of Lasers in Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Dentistry and Endoscopy SPIE vol 3192Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arora M, Ohl CD, Morch KA (2004) Cavitation inception on microparticles: a self-propelled accelerator. Phys Rev Lett 92:174501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brujan EA, Keen GS, Vogel A, Blake JR (2002) The final stage of the collapse of a cavitation bubble close to a rigid boundary. Phys Fluids 14:85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Forrer M, Frenz M, Romano V, Weber HP (1993) Channel propagation in water and gelatin by a free-running erbium laser. J Appl Phys 74:720–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patek SN, Korff WL, Caldwell RL (2004) Deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp. Nature 428:819–820CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bachman L, Diebolder R, Hibst R, Zezell DM (2003) Infrared absorption bands of enamel and dentine tissues from human and bovine teeth. Appl Spectrosc Rev 38:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gutknecht N, Oliveira ME: Lasers for hard tissues, cavity preparation and caries removal, in Gutknecht N et al. (2007) Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing, Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maziar Mir
    • 1
    • 2
  • Norbert Gutknecht
    • 1
  • Reinhart Poprawe
    • 3
  • Leon Vanweersch
    • 1
  • Friedrich Lampert
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik für Zahnerhaltung, Parodontologie und Präventive ZahnheilkundeUniversitätsklinikum der RWTH AachenAachenGermany
  2. 2.Beckman Laser InstituteUniversity of California in IrvineIrvineUSA
  3. 3.Fraunhofer Institute for Laser TechnologyAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations