Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 421–425 | Cite as

Evaluation of mineral content of dentin prepared by erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser

  • Asli SecilmisEmail author
  • Subutayhan Altintas
  • Aslihan Usumez
  • Gizem Berk
Original article


Laser etching has an effect on the mineral content of dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of dentin prepared at three different power settings with an erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser. The enamel of five, lower, wisdom, molar teeth was removed to expose the dentin surface. Four dentin slabs were obtained, then each tooth was randomly divided into four portions (groups 1 W, 2 W, 3 W and control) so that we could evaluate the effect of laser treatment. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser used for the study had a pulse duration of 140 μs, a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz and a power output range of 0 W to 6 W. Laser energy was delivered through a fiberoptic system to a sapphire tip terminal 6 mm long and 600 μm in diameter, using a non-contact mode. The levels of five elements: magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sodium (Na), in each slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). There were significant differences between the groups (1 W, 2 W, 3 W and control) for Ca, Mg, Na, P and Ca/P ratio (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences for K (P = 0.43). Laser treatment at 1 W significantly affected the mean percentage weight of all element groups except K. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs indicated that the surface irregularities increased with increasing power setting.


Er, Cr:YSGG ICP-AES Mineral content Dentin 


  1. 1.
    Lee BS, Lin PY, Chen MH, Hsieh TT, Lin CP, Lai JY, Lan WH (2007) Tensile bond strength of Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated human dentin and analysis of dentin-resin interface. Dent Mater 23:570–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lin S, Caputo AA, Eversole LR, Rizoiu I (1999) Topographical characteristics and shear bond strength of tooth surface cut with a laser-powered hydrokinetic system. J Prosthet Dent 82:451–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eversole LR, Rizoiu IM (1995) Preliminary investigations on the utility of an erbium, chromium YSGG laser. J Calif Dent Assoc 23:41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eversole LR, Rizoiu I, Kimmel AI (1997) Pulpal response to cavity preparation by an erbium, chromium: YSGG laser-powered hydrokinetic system. J Am Dent Assoc 128:1099–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ceballos L, Osorio P, Toledano M, Marshall GW (2001) Microleakage of composite restorations after acid or Er-YAG laser cavity treatments. Dent Mater 17:340–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Usumez A, Aykent F (2003) Bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers to tooth surfaces prepared with acid and Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching. J Prosthet Dent 90:24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Usumez S, Orhan M, Usumez A (2002) Laser etching of enamel for direct bonding with an Er,Cr:YSGG hydrokinetic laser system. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 122:649–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Von Fraunhofer JA, Allen DJ, Orbell GM (1993) Laser etching of enamel for direct bonding. Angle Orthod 63:73–76Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Corpus-Pastor L, Moreno JV, Lopez-Gonzalez J, Muriel VP, Moore K, Elias A (1997) Comparing the tensile strength of brackets adhered to laser etched enamel vs acid etched enamel. J Am Dent Assoc 128:732–737Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Visuri SR, Gilbert JL, Wright DD, Wigdor HA, Walsh JT (1996) Shear strength of composite bonded to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin. J Dent Res 75:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fowler BO, Kuroda S (1986) Changes in heated and in laser-irradiated human tooth enamel and their probable effects on solubility. Calcif Tissue Int 38:197–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keller U, Hibst R (1990) Ultrastructural changes of enamel and dentin following Er:YAG laser radiation on teeth. Proc SPIE 1200:408–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zakariasen KL, Macdonald R, Boran T (1991) Spotlight on lasers. A look at potential benefits. J Am Dent Assoc 122:58–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arcoria CJ, Lippas MG, Vitasek BA (1993) Enamel surface roughness analysis after laser ablation and acid-etching. J Oral Rehabil 20:213–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walsh LJ, Abood D, Brockhurst PJ (1994) Bonding of resin composite to carbon dioxide laser-modified human enamel. Dent Mater 10:162–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martinez-Insua A, Da Silva Dominguez L, Rivera FG, Santana-Penin UA (2000) Differences in bonding to acid etched or Er:YAG-lased-treated enamel and dentin surfaces. J Prosthet Dent 84:280–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Tamaki Y, Yamada Y, Murakami Y, Matsumoto K (2003) Atomic analysis and knoop hardness measurement of the cavity floor prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation in vitro. J Oral Rehabil 30:515–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kimura Y, Matsumoto N, Matsumoto K (1999) Effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation in human enamel and dentin: ablation and morphological studies. J Clin Laser Med Surg 17:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rotstein I, Dankner E, Goldman A, Heling I, Stabholz A, Zalkind M (1996) Histochemical analysis of dental hard tissues following bleaching. J Endod 22:23–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaufman D, Mor C, Stabholz A, Rotstein I (1997) Effect of gutta-percha solvents on calcium and phosphorus levels of cut human dentin. J Endod 23:614–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Doğan H, Çalt S (2001) Effect of chelating agents and sodium hypochlorite on mineral content of root dentin. J Endod 27:578–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Doğan H, Tasman F, Çehreli ZC (2001) Effect of gutta-percha solvents at different temperatures on the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels of human root dentin. J Oral Rehabil 28:792–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ari H, Erdemir A (2005) Effect of endodontic irrigation solutions on mineral content of root canal dentin. J Endod 31:187–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Erdemir A, Eldeniz AU, Belli S (2004) Effect of gutta-percha solvents on mineral contents of human root dentin using ICP-AES technique. J Endod 30:54–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hennequin M, Pajot J, Avignant D (1994) Effects of different pH values of citric acid solutions on the calcium and phosphorus contents of human root dentin. J Endod 20:551–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hennequin M, Douillard Y (1995) Effects of citric acid treatment on the Ca, P and Mg contents of human dental roots. J Clin Periodontol 22:550–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deutsch AS, Cohen BI, Musikant BL (2003) Inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption for the use of elemental analysis of a root canal after lasing with a holmium:YAG laser. J Endod 29:404–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohen M, Garnick JJ, Ringle RD, Hanes PJ, Thompson WO (1992) Calcium and phosphorus content of root exposed to the oral environment. J Clin Periodontol 19:268–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grayson W, Marsall JR (1993) Dentin: microstructure and characterization. Quintessence Int 24:606–617Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wiesmann HP, Tkotz T, Joos U, Zierold K, Stratmann U, Szuwart T, Plate U, Hohling HJ (1997) Magnesium in newly formed dentin mineral of rat incisor. J Bone Miner Res 12:380–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asli Secilmis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Subutayhan Altintas
    • 2
  • Aslihan Usumez
    • 3
  • Gizem Berk
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of SelcukKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of DentistryKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of GaziantepGaziantepTurkey
  4. 4.Denta FormAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations