Advertisement

The economics of politics: patronage and political selection in Italy

  • Federico Quaresima
  • Fabio FiorilloEmail author
Original Paper
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

This article investigates patronage in the Second Italian Republic by considering patronage a fundamental device able to guarantee a party presence in the governance of public bodies. The study sheds light on a particular area of party patronage, namely political appointments concerning legislators; it analyzes the factors which could determine whether a member of Parliament will be appointed to a state-owned enterprise’s board of directors after a legislature, seeking to gain a better understanding of how political actors exploit this opportunity. Direct political connections can be conceptualized as instruments to control and reward politicians and/or strategies to enhance political control over the bureaucracy. The empirical investigation suggests that legislators’ efforts in Parliament play a role in the likelihood of patronage appointments. Education does not seem to significantly increase the probability of receiving a nomination for a seat on public firms’ boards, moreover our result casts doubt on the merits or competencies of the appointed politicians.

Keywords

Public firms Patronage Appointments of politicians 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thanks Diego Piacentino and two anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions. The usual disclaimers apply.

References

  1. Baturo A, Mikhaylov S (2016) Blair disease? Business careers of the former democratic heads of state and government. Public Choice 166(3–4):335–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellò B, Spano A (2015) Governing the purple zone: how politicians influence public managers. Eur Manag J 33:354–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Besley T (2006) Principled agents? The political economy of good government. Oxford University Press on Demand, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanes i Vidal J, Draca M, Fons-Rosen C (2012) Revolving door lobbyists. Am Econ Rev 102(7):3731–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bortolotti B, Faccio M (2009) Government control of privatized firms. Rev Financ Stud 22(8):2907–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boubakri N, Cosset J-C, Saffar W (2008) Political connections of newly privatized firms. J Corp Finance 14(5):654–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron AC, Trivedi PK (2005) Microeconometrics: methods and applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carey J (2007) Competing principals, political institutions, and party unity in legislative voting. Am J Polit Sci 51(1):92–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carretta A, Farina V, Gon A, Parisi A (2012) Politicians on board: do political connections affect banking activities in italy? Eur Manag Rev 9(2):75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caselli F, Morelli M (2004) Bad politicians. J Public Econ 88(3–4):759–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerina F, Deidda LG (2017) Rewards from public office and the selection of politicians by parties. Eur J Polit Econ 47:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ceron A (2015) Brave rebels stay home: assessing the effect of intra-party ideological heterogeneity and party whip on roll-call votes. Party Polit 21(2):246–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahlström C, Lapuente V, Teorell J (2012) The merit of meritocratization: politics, bureaucracy, and the institutional deterrents of corruption. Polit Res Q 65(3):656–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Di Mascio F (2011a) Come i partiti controllano lo stato. il patronage in europa. Riv ital sci polit 2:291–314Google Scholar
  15. Di Mascio F (2011b) Come i partiti controllano lo stato: il patronage in europa. Riv ital sci polit 41(2):291–314Google Scholar
  16. Di Mascio F (2012a) Changing political parties, persistent patronage: the Italian case in comparative perspective. Comp Eur Polit 10(4):377–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Di Mascio F (2012b) Changing political parties, persistent patronage: the Italian case in comparative perspective. Comp Eur Polit 10(4):377–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diermeier D, Keane M, Merlo A (2005) A political economy model of congressional careers. Am Econ Rev 95(1):347–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fisman R (2001) Estimating the value of political connections. Am Econ Rev 91(4):1095–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gagliarducci S, Nannicini T, Naticchioni P (2010) Moonlighting politicians. J Public Econ 94(9–10):688–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gagliarducci S, Nannicini T, Naticchioni P (2008) Electoral rules and politicians’ behavior: a micro test. IZA discussion paper, no. 3348Google Scholar
  22. Galasso V, Nannicini T (2011) Competing on good politicians. Am Polit Sci Rev 105(01):79–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Galasso V, Nannicini T (2015) So closed: political selection in proportional systems. Eur J Polit Econ 40(Part B):260–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grindle MS (2012) Jobs for the boys. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson J, Maranto R (2006) Bringing back boss tweed: could at-will employment work in state and local government and if so, where? In: Bowman JS, West JP (eds) American public service: radical reform and the merit system. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 77–100Google Scholar
  26. Katz RS, Crotty WJ (2006) Handbook of party politics. Sage, Beverley HillsGoogle Scholar
  27. Kickert W (2011) Distinctiveness of administrative reform in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Common characteristics of context, administrations and reforms. Public Adm 89(3):801–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kopeckỳ P, Mair P, Spirova M (2012) Party patronage and party government in European democracies. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marino B, Martocchia Diodati N (2017) Masters of their fate? Explaining MPs re-candidacy in the long run: the case of italy (1987–2013). Elect Stud 48:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mattozzi A, Merlo A (2008) Political careers or career politicians? J Public Econ 92(3):597–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Menozzi A, Gutiérrez UM, Vannoni D (2012) Board composition, political connections, and performance in state-owned enterprises. Ind Corp Change 21(3):671–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moynihan DP, Roberts AS (2010) The triumph of loyalty over competence: the bush administration and the exhaustion of the politicized presidency. Public Adm Rev 70(4):572–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mundlak Y (1978) On the pooling of time series and cross section data. Econometrica 46:69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Page E, Wright V (1999) Bureaucratic elites in Western European states. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Panebianco A (1988) Political parties: organization and power. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Peters BG, Pierre J (eds) (2004) Politicization of the civil service: concepts, causes, consequences. In: The politicization of the civil service in comparative perspective: a quest for control. Routledge, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  37. Stokes SC, Dunning T, Nazareno M, Brusco V (2013) Brokers, voters, and clientelism: the puzzle of distributive politics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Biezen I, Kopeckỳ P (2007) The state and the parties: public funding, public regulation and rent-seeking in contemporary democracies. Party Politics 13(2):235–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wooldridge JM (2010) Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MIT Press, Cambridge Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universita Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly

Personalised recommendations