Does corruption affect health outcomes in the Philippines?


We examine the effect of corruption on health outcomes in the Philippines. We find that corruption reduces the immunization rates, delays the vaccination of newborns, discourages the use of public health clinics, reduces satisfaction of households with public health services, and increases waiting time at health clinics. We also find that corruption affects public services in rural areas in different ways than urban areas, and that corruption harms the poor more than the wealthy.

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Correspondence to Tugrul Gurgur.

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The research underlying this paper was supported by a grant from the World Bank, financed by the Netherlands Trust Fund.

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Azfar, O., Gurgur, T. Does corruption affect health outcomes in the Philippines?. Econ Gov 9, 197–244 (2008).

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  • Corruption
  • Decentralization
  • Health care
  • Service delivery

JEL Classifications

  • H4
  • I1
  • I2