Energy sub-modules applied in life-cycle inventory of processes
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The heating and cooling of unit processes (utilities) are often the most significant energy fraction of a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) for individual chemicals. Electricity usage is typically a smaller factor. An LCI of a manufacturing process for a specific chemical has been used to identify the heating and cooling requirements. This paper demonstrates the sub-modules used to convert these utilities into actual energy-related emissions for use in the LCI of a specific chemical. Assumptions and results of the unit operation inventory data and of the potential life-cycle burdens are clearly stated, to foster the objective of transparency. A user may substitute another energy grid, fuel sources, or efficiencies based on some site-specific data. The sub-modules utilize a design basis for calculating the utility emissions. Results may be used in LCI studies in the chemical, biochemical, and pharmaceutical industries.
KeywordsPharmaceutical Industry Unit Process Energy Fraction Unit Operation Design Basis
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