Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 1829–1839 | Cite as

Production of environmentally friendly cements using synthetic zeolite catalyst as the pozzolanic material

  • Edris M. Hassan
  • Sabah A. Abdul-WahabEmail author
  • Jamil Abdo
  • Kaan YetilmezsoyEmail author
Original Paper


This study aimed at investigating the effect of addition of varying proportions of synthetic zeolite catalyst on the performance of produced cement and subsequently on the reduction of clinker content and the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. Mechanical and physical properties represented by compressive strength, fineness, and setting time of five zeolite-blended cement clinker specimens prepared using different proportions (1–10% by weight) of synthetic zeolite catalyst were examined. In addition, reference samples (synthetic zeolite-free) were considered to benchmark synthetic zeolite-added samples. Compressive strength and setting time tests were conducted for 2, 7, and 28 days of curing to identify mechanical behavior of the cement because of introducing synthetic zeolite. Crystal structure, chemical composition, and grain size distribution of samples in micro-areas were also characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analyses. Observations made in this study indicated that optimum proportions of synthetic zeolite could be introduced up to an upper limit of 10% without causing adverse effects on the mechanical behavior, quality, and performance of the produced cement. From the economic point of view, the findings of this study concluded that reduction of CO2 emission in cement-producing industry and saving in energy consumption could be implicitly achieved as a result of the replacement of the partial cement clinker with synthetic zeolite catalyst as the pozzolanic material. The results will be promising to use such additives in cement production to manufacture environmentally sustainable cement.

Graphic abstract


CO2 emission Synthetic zeolite Replacement rate Compressive strength Setting time 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest including any financial, personal, or other relationships with other people or organizations.

Supplementary material

10098_2019_1752_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3764 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of EngineeringSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatSultanate of Oman
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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