Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 1665–1674 | Cite as

Protocol encompassing ultrasound/Fe3O4 nanoparticles/persulfate for the removal of tetracycline antibiotics from aqueous environments

  • Mahammad Malakotian
  • Seyedeh Nastaran Asadzadeh
  • Mehrdad KhatamiEmail author
  • Mohammad Ahmadian
  • Mohammad R. Heidari
  • Pouria Karimi
  • Nima Firouzeh
  • Rajender S. VarmaEmail author
Original Paper


The presence of residual antibiotics in the environment is one of the major global concerns, and it is imperative to control their discharge in water bodies. The present study used a combination of Fe3O4 nanoparticles/persulfate in conjunction with ultrasound to address this problem; the influence of effective parameters in the remediation process, persulfate concentration, nanoparticle concentrations, initial antibiotic concentration, contact time and pH was investigated. The highest removal rate of tetracycline antibiotic was observed at pH 10, the amount of magnetic nanoparticles being (0.3 g/L), with persulfate concentration at 4 mM for the removal of antibiotic concentration at 10 mg/L; TC and COD removal efficiency is 92.99 and 79.85%, respectively. The deployment of sonocatalytic process, along with the use of magnetite nanoparticles and persulfates as oxidizing agents, appears to be an effective means for decreasing the high-level tetracycline concentration in water.

Graphic abstract


Fe3O4 nanoparticles Tetracycline Ultrasonic wave Persulfate AOPs 



The authors express their gratitude for the support and assistance extended by the facilitators during the research.

Author contributions

All authors have contributed different sections and studies in this review article.

Complice with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares no competing financial interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahammad Malakotian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seyedeh Nastaran Asadzadeh
    • 3
  • Mehrdad Khatami
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Mohammad Ahmadian
    • 4
  • Mohammad R. Heidari
    • 6
  • Pouria Karimi
    • 1
  • Nima Firouzeh
    • 7
  • Rajender S. Varma
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Environmental Health Engineering Research CenterKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Student Research CommitteeSchool of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  4. 4.NanoBioElectrochemistry Research CenterBam University of Medical SciencesBamIran
  5. 5.Nanomedicine and Nanobiology Research CenterShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  6. 6.Student Research Committee, School of Public HealthBam University of Medical SciencesBamIran
  7. 7.Department of Parasitology and MycologyBojnord University of Medical SciencesBojnordIran
  8. 8.Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and MaterialsPalacky UniversityOlomoucCzech Republic

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