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Prediction of the resource-efficient potential of Turkish manufacturing industry: a country-based study

  • Şeyma Karahan ÖzbilenEmail author
  • Kumru Rende
  • Yılmaz Kılıçaslan
  • Zeynep Karal Önder
  • Gökhan Önder
  • Ünal Töngür
  • Ceren Tosun
  • Özlem Durmuş
  • Nevda Atalay
  • Belçim Aytekin Keskin
  • Nilay Dönmez
  • Gonca Aras
Original Paper
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

As an emerging country, there is a rapid industrial development and associated excessive resource consumption in Turkey. In this case, the dissemination of cleaner production activities based on the principle of minimum resource consumption and waste generation should be regarded as the priority target to ensure efficient use of the resources, enhance the manufacturing industry’s competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts. In this paper, the potential of resource efficiency in Turkish manufacturing industry was predicted. Input saving potential in each industry and aggregate manufacturing was predicted under three different scenarios: business-as-usual, realistic, and ideal. While we used industry saving rate obtained from the field surveys in business-as-usual scenario, we used (in)efficiency scores obtained from Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) conducted for the entire manufacturing industry as well as for the five selected sectors and sub-sectors by using the firm-level panel data Turkish manufacturing from 2008 to 2012 together with the sectoral saving rates. The potential of resource efficiency is estimated for five sectors: (10) Manufacture of food products, (13) Manufacture of textiles, (20) Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products, (23) Manufacture of other nonmetallic mineral products, and (24) Manufacture of basic metals. Then, it is generalized to whole Turkish manufacturing industry. The calculations were performed in both monetary and quantitative terms for energy and water inputs but only in monetary terms for raw material inputs. It is estimated that the Turkish manufacturing industry’s monetary-saving potential ranges from $8.8 billion/year to $14.5 billion/year based on the three scenarios specified for all inputs. In addition, according to the realistic scenario, 44.5% of total monetary-saving potential stems from SME savings (47.3% raw material, 41.8% energy, and 9.8% water). Besides, TR10 (Istanbul) and TR42 (Kocaeli, Sakarya, Düzce, Bolu, Yalova) regions have highest raw material and energy-saving potential, respectively. According to the realistic scenario, their share of the total saving value stood at 27% and 14%, respectively. Also, TR63 (Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, Osmaniye) and TR22 (Balıkesir, Çanakkale) regions have the highest water-saving potentials. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt in examining resource efficiency in the Turkish manufacturing industry in the broadest scope. Moreover, the methodology used in this work is said to be first and unique. We believe this methodology will open new avenues to the new researches both in Turkey and other countries.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Resource-efficient potential Cleaner production Manufacturing industry Environmental impact Stochastic frontier analysis 

Abbreviations

EC

European commission

EU

European Union

DEFRA

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

SME

Small- and medium-sized enterprises

TOE

Tonnes of oil equivalent

TRY

Turkish Lira

List of symbols

\({\text{AIV}}_{{\begin{array}{*{20}c} {it < 1 } \\ { > 1 } \\ \end{array} }}\)

Average investment value for investments with a payback period of less than 1 year and more than 1 year in the i sector at time t

\({\text{AS}}_{{\begin{array}{*{20}c} {it < 1} \\ { > 1} \\ \end{array} }}\)

Average saving value for investments with a payback period of less than 1 year and more than 1 year in the i sector at time t

\({\text{EFF}}_{ijt}\)

The efficiency score of the j business in the i sector at time t

\({\text{EFF}}_{it}\)

The average efficiency level (on sector level) of the i sector at time t

e

Energy

\({\text{IV}}_{it}\)

Investment value in the i sector at time t

\({\text{IV}}1_{{\begin{array}{*{20}c} {it < 1} \\ { > 1} \\ \end{array} }}\)

Investment value required to achieve savings of 1 TRY with the investments with a payback period of less than 1 year and more than 1 year in the i sector at time t

\({\text{IV}}_{{\begin{array}{*{20}c} {it < 1} \\ { > 1} \\ \end{array} }}\)

Sum of investments with a payback period of less than 1 year and more than 1 year in the i sector at time t

\({\text{NA}}_{{\begin{array}{*{20}c} {it < 1} \\ { > 1} \\ \end{array} }}\)

Number of applications of investments with a payback period of less than 1 year and more than 1 year

\({\text{PBP}}_{it }\)

Payback period of investment in the i sector at time t

\({\text{PS}}_{it}^{e}\)

Monetary savings of energy for any i sector at time t

\({\text{PS}}_{it}^{r}\)

Monetary savings of raw material for any i sector at time t

\({\text{PS}}_{it}^{T}\)

Total monetary savings for any i sector at time t

\({\text{PS}}_{it}^{w}\)

Monetary savings of water for any i sector at time t

\({\text{PS}}_{ijt }^{r}\)

Saving value obtained by the j business at time t for the raw material input

\({\text{PSQ}}_{ijt}^{e,w}\)

The savings obtained by the j business in any i sector at time t for the energy and water inputs

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{it}^{r}\)

Saving rate for any i sector and raw material

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{\text{it}}^{r,e,w}\)

Raw material-, energy-, and water-saving rates in the i sector at time t

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{it}^{e,w}\)

Saving rates for energy and water inputs in any i sector

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{\text{it }}^{w}\)

Water-saving rate in the i sector at time t

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{mt}^{r}\)

Raw material-saving rate in the other 19 sectors at time t

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{mt}^{e}\)

Energy-saving rate in the other 19 sectors at time t

\(\overline{\text{SR}}_{mt}^{w}\)

Water-saving rate in the other 19 sectors at time t

\({\text{s}}1{\text{PS}}_{it}^{r,e,w}\)

Monetary raw material, energy, and water savings for business-as-usual scenario

\({\text{s}}2{\text{PS}}_{it}^{r,e,w}\)

Monetary raw material, energy, and water savings for realistic scenario

\({\text{s}}2{\text{PS}}_{TR}^{R,E,W,T}\)

Raw material, energy, water, and total monetary savings of Turkish manufacturing industry for realistic scenario

\({\text{s}}2{\text{PSQ}}_{TR}^{E,W}\)

Energy and water quantitative savings of Turkish manufacturing industry for realistic scenario

\({\text{s}}3{\text{PS}}_{it}^{r,e,w}\)

Monetary raw material, energy and water savings for ideal scenario

\({\text{s}}2{\text{IV}}_{TR < 1}^{R}\)

Investments with a payback period less than 1 year for raw material for realistic scenario

\({\text{s}}2{\text{IV}}_{TR > 1 }^{R}\)

Investments with a payback period more than 1 year for raw material for realistic scenario

\({\text{s}}2{\text{IV}}_{TR}^{R}\)

Total investment value for raw material for realistic scenario

\(sx{\text{PS}}_{it}^{\text{elc}}\)

Monetary electricity savings of the i sector at time t

\(sx{\text{PS}}_{it}^{f}\)

Fuel-related monetary-saving potential

\(sx{\text{PSQ}}_{it}^{E}\)

Quantitative total energy savings of the i sector at time t

\(sx{\text{PSQ}}_{it}^{\text{elc}}\)

Quantitative electricity savings of the i sector at time t

\(sx{\text{PSQ}}_{it}^{f}\)

Quantitative fuel savings of the i sector at time t

\(sx{\text{PSQ}}_{it}^{w}\)

Quantitative water savings of the i sector at time t

\({\text{TC}}^{c}\)

Unit toe cost for coal derivatives

\({\text{TC}}^{p}\)

Unit toe cost for petroleum derivatives

\({\text{TC}}^{ng}\)

Unit toe cost for natural gas

\({\text{TC}}_{ijt}^{r}\)

Total raw material input cost of the j business at time t in any i sector

\({\text{TC}}_{kjt}^{r}\)

Raw material costs of the j business in the other 19 sectors at time t

\({\text{TC}}_{kjt}^{e}\)

Energy costs of the j business in the other 19 sectors at time t

\({\text{TC}}_{kjt}^{w}\)

Water costs of the j business in the other 19 sectors at time t

\({\text{TC}}^{\text{elc}}\)

Electricity unit toe cost

\({\text{TC}}_{ijt}^{r,e,w}\)

Raw material, energy and water costs of the j business in the i sector at time t

\({\text{TC}}_{ijt}^{w}\)

Water costs of the j business in the i sector at time t

\({\text{TS}}_{it}\)

Total value of annual savings in the i sector at time t

\(Q_{it}^{c,p,ng}\)

Total consumption amounts of the fuels of coal derivatives, petroleum derivatives and natural gas at time t

\(Q_{ijt}^{w}\)

Water consumption amount used by the j business in any i sector at time t

\(Q_{ijt}^{e,w}\)

Energy or water amount used by the j business in any i sector at time t

\(Q_{it}^{tf}\)

Total fuel consumption of the i sector at time t

\(Q_{kjt}^{w}\)

Water consumption of the j business in the other 19 sectors at time t

\(q_{jt}\)

The monetary value of the production of the business j at time t

\(\propto_{ijt}\)

Efficiency coefficient

\(\propto_{kjt}\)

Efficiency coefficient of the j business in the other 19 sectors at time t

\(\alpha_{it}^{c}\)

Consumption share of the i sector at time t within the i sector for coal derivatives

\(\alpha_{it}^{p}\)

Consumption share of the i sector at time t within the i sector for petroleum derivatives

\(\alpha_{it}^{ng}\)

Consumption share of the i sector at time t within the i sector for natural gas

β

The parameter vector to be estimated

\(\beta_{ijt}\)

Potential efficiency coefficient of the firm in the ideal scenario

\(x_{jt}\)

The inputs used in the production of the business j at time t

\(u_{jt}\)

(In) efficiency of the business

\(v_{jt}\)

Error term

w

Water

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Directorate General for Productivity, Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology [grant number 2013K100190, 2013]. The authors would like to express their gratitude for the technical supports of enterprises, sectoral experts, sectoral unions/associations and chambers of industry for the development of this work. We thank Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT) for providing the firm-level data and TURKSTAT staff for their help. All analyses have been conducted at the Microdata Research Centre of TurkStat with respect to the protocol on the statistic secret and the personal data protection. The results and the opinions expressed in this article are exclusive responsibility of the authors and, by no means, represent official statistics.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Şeyma Karahan Özbilen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kumru Rende
    • 2
  • Yılmaz Kılıçaslan
    • 3
  • Zeynep Karal Önder
    • 3
  • Gökhan Önder
    • 4
  • Ünal Töngür
    • 5
  • Ceren Tosun
    • 1
  • Özlem Durmuş
    • 6
  • Nevda Atalay
    • 6
  • Belçim Aytekin Keskin
    • 6
  • Nilay Dönmez
    • 6
  • Gonca Aras
    • 6
  1. 1.TUBITAK Marmara Research CenterEnvironment and Cleaner Production InstituteKocaeliTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringGebze Technical UniversityKocaeliTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of EconomicsAnadolu UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Business AdministrationAnadolu UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Economics and Administrative SciencesAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  6. 6.Directorate General for ProductivityMinistry of Science, Industry and TechnologyAnkaraTurkey

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