Effect of modified shrouded intake valve on performance and emissions of spark ignition engine

  • Bidesh RoyEmail author
  • R. D. Misra
  • K. M. Pandey
  • Bachu Deb
  • Amit K. Singh
Original Paper


Strategy of lean burn for reducing fuel consumption and emissions can be achieved by incorporating swirling motion in the incoming fluid entering the cylinder of the engine. In this backdrop, the application of shrouded intake valves gets the upper hand over the conventional poppet valve because of their capacity of producing intake-generated swirl flow. In the existing literature, a modified shrouded intake valve capable of producing significant amount of swirl with relatively smaller restriction to the incoming fluid has been reported. But, no work has been done to determine the effect of using modified shrouded intake valve in the emissions and performance of an SI engine. Thus, the effect of using the modified shrouded intake valve on the emissions and performance of an SI engine is studied and compared with that of poppet intake valve and 100°, 140°, and 180° shrouded intake valves. From the study, it is seen that the engine with modified shrouded intake valve produces lowest hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions for maximum power condition, whereas the brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, and NOx emissions of the engine are quite close to the engine using poppet intake valve which is the best performing valve–engine combination for the same. For minimum brake specific fuel consumption condition, the engine with modified shrouded intake valve produces the highest brake power with the lowest brake specific fuel consumption, whereas the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions of the engine are similar to the engine using 180° shrouded intake valve which is the best performing valve–engine combination for the same.

Graphical abstract


Emissions Modified shrouded intake valve Performance SI engine Swirl 



The authors are very grateful to the reviewers for their valuable and constructive comments, which have been utilized to improve the quality of the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aleksandar SC, Milan RL, Svetislav MC (2013) Numerical analysis of axisymmetric turbulent swirling flow in circular pipe. Therm Sci 18:493–505. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aparicio JG, Paul ER (1988) Lean burn: a review of incentives, methods, a Tradeoffs. SAE Paper No. 880291.
  3. Ashok B, Gopal KN, Rajagopal TKR, Alagiasingam S, Appu S, Murugan A (2017) Design and analysis of a fuel preheating device for evaluation of ethanol based biofuel blends in a diesel engine application. SAE Paper No. 2017-26-0073.
  4. Devan PK, Mahalakshmi NV (2009) Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of poon oil and its diesel blends in a DI diesel engine. Fuel 88:861–870. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dhingra B, Sharma S, Vora K, Ashok B (2015) CFD modeling of advanced swirl technique at inlet-runner for diesel engine. SAE Paper No. 2015-26-0095.
  6. Ebrahimi R (2011) Effect of specific heat ratio on heat release analysis in a spark ignition engine. Sci Iran B 18:1231–1236. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elmi A, Al Rifai N (2012) Pollutant emissions from passenger cars in traffic congestion situation in the state of Kuwait: options and challenges. Clean Techn Environ Policy 14:619–624. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferguson CR, Kirkpatrick AT (2004) Internal combustion engines: applied thermo sciences. Wiley, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. Ganesan V (2011) Internal combustion engines. Tata McGraw-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. Gatowski JA, Heywood JB (1985) Effects of valve shrouding and squish on combustion in a spark ignition engine. SAE Paper No. 852093.
  11. Glover AR, Hundleby GE, Hadded O (1988) An investigation into turbulence in engines using scanning LDA. SAE paper No. 880379.
  12. Hane GJ, Hutchinson RA (1987) Japanese Industrial Research on lean combustion: a case study. Report for the U.S. Department of Energy. Report no. PNL-6210. Accessed 2 Jan 2016
  13. Heim D (2011) In-cylinder investigation of engine size- and speed-scaling effects. PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin-MadisonGoogle Scholar
  14. Henriot S, LeCoz JF, Pinchon P (1989) Three-dimensional modelling of flow and turbulence in a four-valve spark ignition engine—comparison with LDV measurements. SAE Paper No. 890843.
  15. Heywood JB (2011) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. Tata McGraw-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  16. Holman JP (2004) Experimental methods for engineers. Tata McGraw-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. Hugelman, RD, Ong SH (1982) Recent developments in swirl induced turbulent mixing for 4-stroke cycle engines. SAE Paper No. 820157.
  18. Khalighi B, Haworth DC, Huebler MS (1994) Multidimensional port-and-in-cylinder flow calculations and flow visualization study in an internal combustion engine with different intake configurations. SAE Paper No. 941871.
  19. Kumar CR, Nagarajan G (2012) Investigation of flow during intake stroke of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 7:180–186Google Scholar
  20. Liou, TM, and Santavicca, DA (1983) Cycle resolved turbulence measurements in a ported engine with and without swirl. SAE Paper No. 830419.
  21. Matekunas AF (1983) Modes and measures of cyclic combustion variability. SAE Paper No. 830337.
  22. Mathur ML, Sharma RP (2001) A course in internal combustion engines. Dhanpat Rai Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  23. Misra RD, Jena J, Murthy MS (2013) Energy and exergy analyses of a CI engine fuelled with palm biodiesel based on experimental data. Int J Exergy 13:124–139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nanthagopal K, Ashok B, Varatharajan V, Anand V, Kumar RD (2017) Study on the effect of exhaust gas-based fuel preheating device on ethanol-diesel blends operation in a compression ignition engine. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19:2379–2392. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pulkrabek WW (1997) Engineering fundamentals of the internal combustion engine. Prentice, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. Pundir BP (2013) IC engines combustion and emissions. Narosa Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramadan B (2003) A study of swirl generation in DI engines using KIVA-3V. Kettering University. Accessed 13 Jan 2016
  28. Ricardo (1993) Steady state flow bench port performance measurement and analysis techniques. Report DP93/0704Google Scholar
  29. Roy B (2016) Experimental and computational investigations on shroud modification of shrouded intake valve for performance enhancement of SI engine, PhD Thesis, NIT SilcharGoogle Scholar
  30. Roy B, Misra RD, Pandey KM (2015) Swirl ratio and mean flow coefficient within S.I. engine using shrouded intake valve and correlation equations for its prediction. Int J Innov Res Dev 4:364–370Google Scholar
  31. Roy B, Misra RD, Pandey KM (2016) Characterization of shrouded intake valve in terms of mean flow coefficient and swirl ratio. Int J Appl Eng Res 11:273–277Google Scholar
  32. Roy B, Misra RD, Pandey KM, Sinha A, Deb B (2018) Computational and experimental study of swirl flow within SI engine with modified shrouded intake valve. Prog Comput Fluid Dyn Int J (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  33. Sabo RG (2001) Shrouded engine valve. Patent US 6234142B1, USA. Accessed 13 Jan 2016
  34. Stone CR and Ladommatos N (1992) The measurement and analysis of swirl in steady flow. SAE Paper No. 921642.
  35. Strokes J, Lake TH, Christie MJ et al (1994) Improving the NOx/fuel economy trade-off for gasoline engine with the CCVS combustion system. SAE Paper No. 940482.
  36. Taylor RA (1963) Investigations on the intake induced air swirl of a stratified charge engine theoretical and experimental investigations. Technical Report No. 1, Pennsylvania State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  37. Tess M, Ghandhi J (2012) Effects of turbulence on mixture stratification in a small-bore utility engine. SAE Paper No. 2012-32-0005.
  38. Udayakumar R, Arasu PV, Sriram S (2003) Experimental investigation on emission control in C.I. engines using shrouded inlet valve. SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0350.
  39. Vermorel O, Richard S, Colin O et al (2008) Understanding cyclic variability in a spark ignited engine using multi-cycle LES. Accessed 20 Jan 2016
  40. Witze PO (1980) Influence of air motion variation on the performance of a direct injection stratified charge engine. SciTech Connect. Accessed 23 Jan 2016

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bidesh Roy
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. D. Misra
    • 2
  • K. M. Pandey
    • 2
  • Bachu Deb
    • 1
  • Amit K. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology MizoramAizawlIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology SilcharSilcharIndia

Personalised recommendations