Advertisement

Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1239–1245 | Cite as

Solar photocatalysis at semi-pilot scale: wastewater decontamination in a packed-bed photocatalytic reactor system with a visible-solar-light-driven photocatalyst

  • M. E. BorgesEmail author
  • M. Sierra
  • P. Esparza
Original Paper

Abstract

Particles of natural volcanic ashes as photocatalyst configured in a packed-bed photocatalytic reactor were studied for the photodegradation of wastewater pollutants under solar light. The photocatalytic system was equipped with a cylindrical parabolic sunlight concentrator, and the photocatalytic treatment has been developed with a continuous flow of wastewater under sunlight irradiation. The influence of incident radiation, amount of photocatalyst, and several configurations in the photoreactor hydrodynamics were studied. Moreover, results obtained were compared with those obtained from the photolysis and adsorption studies. Good photocatalytic activities have been observed, and this allows concluding that heterogeneous photocatalytic system in a packed bed is an effective method for wastewater pollutants removal. In a sunny day, more than 90% of the contaminant can be removed after 5 h by the continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of the wastewater in the packed-bed reactor under sunlight. The possibility of combining the renewable energy (solar energy) and the photocatalytic technology, by means of a sustainable photocatalytic material, offers a powerful alternative in the wastewater treatment sector.

Keywords

Solar photocatalysis Packed-bed reactor Photodegradation Photocatalyst Volcanic ashes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Research Proyect of Fundación CajaCanarias “FOTOCAT” (AER01) and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Project ENE2013-47826-C4-1-R). The authors thank to the Izaña Atmospheric Research Center (IARC) and the Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET) in Tenerife for its collaboration.

References

  1. Adams M, Campbell I, Robertson PKJ (2008) Novel photocatalytic reactor development for removal of hydrocarbons from water. Int J Photoenergy 2008:674537. doi: 10.1155/2008/674537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borges ME, Alvarez-Galván MC, Esparza P, Medina E, Martín-Zarza P, Fierro JLG (2008) Ti-containing volcanic ash as photocatalyst for degradation of phenol. Energy Environ Sci 1:364–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borges ME, Hernández T, Esparza P (2014) Photocatalysis as a potential tertiary treatment of urban wastewater: new photocatalytic materials. Clean Technol Environ Policy 16:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borges ME, García DM, Hernández T, Ruiz-Morales JC, Esparza P (2015) Supported photocatalyst for removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater in a continuous packed-bed photoreactor configuration. Catalysts 5:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dong S, Zhang X, He F, Dong S, Zhou D, Wang B (2015) Visible-light photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over spherical activated carbon-supported and Er3+: YAlO3-doped TiO2 in a fluidized bed. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 90:880–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Esparza P, Borges ME, Díaz L, Alvarez-Galván MC, Fierro JLG (2010a) Photodegradation of dye pollutants using new nanostructured titania supported on volcanic ashes. Appl Catal A 388:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Esparza P, Borges ME, Díaz L (2010b) Studies in a fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system using natural materials for degradation of a dye contaminant in water. Water Air Soil Pollut 218:549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferguson M, Hering J (2006) TiO2 photocatalyzed As (III) oxidation in a fixed-bed through reactor. Environ Sci Technol 40:4261–4267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanaor DAH, Sorrell CC (2014) Sand supported mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalysts for water decontamination applications. Adv Eng Mater 16:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. He Y, Sutton NB, Rijnaarts HHH, Langenhoff AAM (2016) Degradation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater using immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis under simulated solar irradiation. Appl Catal B 182:132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hsieh C, Fan W, Chen W (2008) Impact of mesoporous pore distribution on adsorption of methylene blue onto titania nanotubes in aqueous solution. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 116:677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khalilian H, Behpour M, Atouf V, Hosseini SN (2015) Immobilization of S, N-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles on glass beads for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by fixed bed photoreactor under visible and sunlight irradiation. Sol Energy 112:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lam SM, Sin JC, Abdullah AZ, Mohamed AR (2012) Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review. Desalin Water Treat 41:131–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liao CH, Huang CW, Wu JCS (2012) Hydrogen production from semiconductor-based photocatalysis via water splitting. Catalysts 2:490–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McCullagh C, Skillen N, Adams M, Robertson PKJ (2011) Photocatalytic reactors for environmental remediation: a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 86:1002–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Melián E, Díaz O, Méndez A, López C, Suárez M, Rodríguez J, Navío J, Hevia D, Peña J (2013) Efficient and affordable hydrogen production by water photo-splitting using TiO2-based photocatalysts. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:2144–2155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Monteiro R, Rodrigues-Silva C, Lopes F, Silva A, Boaventura R, Vilar V (2015) Evaluation of a solar/UV annular pilot scale reactor for 24 h continuous photocatalytic oxidation of n-decane. Chem Eng J 280:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nam W, Kim J, Han G (2002) Photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange in a three-phase fluidized bed reactor. Chemosphere 47:1019–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nogueira RFP, Jardim WF (1996) TiO2-fixed-bed reactor for water decontamination using solar light. Sol Energy 56:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peill NJ, Hoffmann MR (1996) Chemical and physical characterization of a TiO2-coated fiber optic cable reactor. Environ Sci Technol 30:2806–2812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Punzi M, Anbalagan A, Aragão Börner R, Svensson BM, Jonstrup M, Mattiasson B (2015) Degradation of a textile azo dye using biological treatment followed by photo-Fenton oxidation: evaluation of toxicity and microbial community structure. Chem Eng J 270:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rao NN, Chaturvedi V, Li Puma G (2012) Novel pebble bed photocatalytic reactor for solar treatment of textile wastewater. Chem Eng J 184:90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sarkar S, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharjee C (2015) Photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical wastes by alginate supported TiO2 nanoparticles in packed bed photo reactor (PBPR). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 121:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Spasiano D, Marottaa R, Malato S, Fernandez-Ibáñez P, Di Sommac I (2015) Solar photocatalysis: materials, reactors, some commercial, and pre-industrialized applications. A comprehensive approach. Appl Catal B 170–171:90–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thennarasu G, Sivasamy A, Kavithaa S (2013) Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of nano size semiconductor metal oxide in a visible light batch slurry photoreactor. J Mol Liq 179:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vaiano V, Sacco O, Sannino D, Ciambelli P (2015) Nanostructured N-doped TiO2 coated on glass spheres for the photocatalytic removal of organic dyes under UV or visible light irradiation. Appl Catal B 170–171:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang X, Maeda K, Thomas A, Takanabe K, Xin G, Carlsson JM, Domen K, Antonietti M (2009a) A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light. Nat Mater 8:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang Z, Chen C, Wu F, Zou B, Zhao M, Wang J, Feng C (2009b) Photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light by bimetal codoped TiO2 nanocrystals. J Hazard Mater 164:615–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of La LagunaLa LagunaSpain
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of La LagunaLa LagunaSpain

Personalised recommendations