Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 37–52 | Cite as

The dual roles of phycoremediation of wet market wastewater for nutrients and heavy metals removal and microalgae biomass production

  • N. M. JaisEmail author
  • R. M. S. R. MohamedEmail author
  • A. A. Al-GheethiEmail author
  • M. K. Amir Hashim


Wastewater generated from fresh, vegetables and meat shops contains high concentrations of nutrients, COD, BOD and TSS. Therefore, the direct discharge of wet market wastewater into natural water may increase the pollution level. Wet market wastewater is rich with nutrients necessary for microalgae growth. Therefore, it represent a superlative environment for producing high quantity of microalgae biomass which have several applications in aquaculture, human nutrition and pharmaceutical industries. Phycoremediation is a process with high potential for the treatment wastewater and removal of nutrients and heavy metals as well as the production of microalgae biomass. However, the main challenges for the phycoremediation technology lie in the wastewater composition, microalgae species, and the competition process between the microalgae strain and the indigenous organisms as well as final utilization of biomass yield. The present review discusses the dual roles of phycoremediation for nutrients and heavy metals removal and microalgae biomass production. The microbiological aspects of phycoremediation, mechanism for heavy metals removal from wastewater, as well as factors affecting wastewater treatment are reviewed. It appears that phycoremediation plays an important role in the treatment of wastewater and production of microalgae biomass.


Phycoremediation Wet market wastewater Nutrient Heavy metal Efficiency Biomass production 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia for the research project financial support under fundamental research Grant Scheme (FRGS) vot No. 1453 and prototype research Grant Scheme (PRGS) vot G004.


  1. Abdel Monem MO, Al-Zubeiry AH, Al-Gheethi AA (2010) Biosorption of nickel by Pseudomonas cepacia 120S and Bacillus subtilis 117S. Water Sci Technol 61:2994–3007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan AA, Ibraheem IB (2012) Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J Biol Sci 19(3):257–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abou-Shanab RAI, Ji M, Kim H, Paeng K, Jeon B (2013) Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. J Environ Manag 115:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adel AS, Lalung J, Efaq AN, Ismail N (2015) Removal of cephalexin antibiotic and heavy metals from pharmaceutical effluents using Bacillus subtilis strain. Expert Opin Environ Biol 4:2Google Scholar
  5. Al-Balushi L, Rout N, Talebi S, Darmaki AA, Al-Qasmi M (2012) Removal of nitrate from wastewater using Trentepohlia aurea microalgae. In: Proceedings of the Word congress on engineering, vol. 1, p 4–6Google Scholar
  6. Al-Gheethi AA (2015) Recycling of sewage sludge as production medium for cellulase enzyme by a Bacillus megaterium strain. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 4(2):105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I (2014) Biodegradation of pharmaceutical residues in sewage treated effluents by Bacillus subtilis 1556WTNC. J Environ Process 1(4):459–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I, Lalung J, Azieda T, Ab. Kadir MO (2013) Reduction of faecal indicators and elimination of pathogens from sewage treated effluents by heat treatment. Casp J Appl Sci Res 2(2):29–45Google Scholar
  9. Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I, Lalung J, Megat Azlan A, Nur Farehah ZA, Ab. Kadir MO (2014) Biosorption of heavy metals and cephalexin from secondary effluents by tolerant bacteria. Clean Technol Environ Policy 16:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Gheethi AA, Aisyah M, Bala JD, Efaq AN, Norli I (2015a) Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance bacteria in non-clinical environment. In: 4th international conference on environmental research and technology (ICERT 2015) on 27–29 May 2015. Parkroyal Resort, PenangGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Gheethi AA, Lalung J, Efaq AN, Bala JD, Norli I (2015b) Removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics from sewage treated effluent by bacteria. Clean Technol Environ Policy 17(8):2101–2123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Al-Gheethi AA, Mohamed RM, Efaq AN, Amir HK (2015c) Reduction of microbial risk associated with greywater utilized for irrigation. J Water health (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I, Efaq AN, Bala JD, Al-Amery MA (2015d) Solar disinfection and lime treatment processes for reduction of pathogenic bacteria in sewage treated effluents and biosolids before reuse for agriculture in Yemen. J Water Reuse Des 5(3):419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Al-Gheethi AA, Mohamed RMS, Efaq AN, Norli I, Amir Hashim, MO Ab. Kadir (2016a) Bioaugmentation process of sewage effluents for the reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics. J Water Health (in press)Google Scholar
  15. Al-Gheethi AA, Efaq AN, Mohamed RMSR, Bala JD, Amir Hashim MK (2016b) Microbial cellulase: production and application in enzymatic treatment of biosolids. In: Book, cellulase: production, applications and health benefits. NOVA Science Publishers, Inc. USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Ammar E, Nasri M, Medhioub K (2005) Isolation of phenol degrading Enterobacteria from the wastewater of olive oil extraction process. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(3):253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Andrulevičiūtė V, Skorupskaitė V, Kasperovičienė J (2011) Cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a potential biofuel Feedstock. Environ Res Eng Manag 57(3):21–27Google Scholar
  18. Arumugam M, Agarwal A, Arya AC, Ahmed Z (2013) Influence of nitrogen sources on biomass productivity of microalgae Scenedesmus bijugatus. Short Communication. Biores Technol 131:246–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Badwy TM, Ibrahim EM, Zeinhom MM (2008) Partial Replacement of fish meal with dried microalga (Chlorella spp. and Scenedesmus spp.) in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Diets. In: 8th symposium on tilapia in aquacultureGoogle Scholar
  20. Bala JD, Japareng L, Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I (2015) Reduction of oil and grease by fungi isolated from palm oil mill effluent (POME). In: 4th international conference on environmental research and technology (ICERT 2015) on 27–29 May 2015. Parkroyal Resort, PenangGoogle Scholar
  21. Bala JD, Lalung J, Al-Gheethi AA, Norli I (2016) A review on biofuel and bioresources for environmental applications. In: Book renewable energy and sustainable technologies for building and environmental applications. Springer Publishing. Switzerland, pp. 205–225Google Scholar
  22. Bashan LE, Bashan Y (2010) Immobilized microalgae for removing pollutants: review of practical aspects. Biores Technol 101:1611–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Borowitzka MA (1998) Limits to growth. In: Wong Y-S, Tam NFY (eds) Wastewater treatment with algae. Springer, Berlin, p 203–226. Jointly published with Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, USA. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-10863-5_12
  24. Cao SG, Yong H, Ma L, Guo SC (1996) Enzymatic properties by the immobilization method. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 59:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cassidy KO (2011) Evaluating algal growth at different temperatures. MSC Theses and Dissertations—Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of KentuckyUnited StatesGoogle Scholar
  26. Castrillo M, Lucas-Salas LM, Rodríguez-Gil C, Martínez D (2013) High pH-induced flocculation-sedimentation and effect of supernatant reuse on growth rate and lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris. Biores Technol 128:324–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cavet J, Borrelly G, Robinson N (2003) Zn, Cu, and Co in Cynobacteria; a selective control of metal availability. FEMS Microbial Rev 27:165–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. CDC (2006) The national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system for enteric bacteria (NARMS): Human isolates final report. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centre for Disease Control (CDC)Google Scholar
  29. Chamorro S, Samchez-montero JM, Allcantara AR, Sinisterra JV (1998) Treatment of Candida rugosa lipase with short-chain polorganic solvents enhances its hydrolytic and synthetic activities. Biotechnol Lett 20:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen CY, Chang HW, Kao PC, Pan JL, Chang JS (2012) Biosorption of Cadmium by CO2-fixing Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N. Biores Technol 105:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen L, Wang C, Wang W, Wei J (2013) Optimal conditions of different flocculation methods for harvesting Scenedesmus sp. cultivated in an open-pond system. Biores Technol 133:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chigusa S, Hasegawa T, Yamamota N, Watanabe Y (1996) Treatment of waste water from oil manufacture plant by yeasts. Water Sci Technol 34:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chindah AC, Braide SA, Amakiri J, Ajibulu OOK (2009) Periphyton succession in a waste water treatment pond. Revista UDO Agrícola 9(3):681–699Google Scholar
  34. Chiu SY, Kao CY, Chen TY, Chang YB, Kuo CM, Lin CS (2015) Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource. Biores Technol 184:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cogliani C, Goossens H, Greko C (2011) Restricting antimicrobial use in food animals: lessons from Europe. Microbe 6(6):274–279Google Scholar
  36. Dalkmann P, Broszat M, Siebe C, Willaschek E, Sakinc T, Huebner H, Amelung W, Grohmann E, Siemens J (2012) Accumulation of pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and resistance genes in soils irrigated with wastewater for zero to 100 years in Central Mexico. PLoS ONE 7:e45397. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. De la Noue J, De Pauw N (1988) The potential of microalgal biotechnology. A review of production and uses of microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 6:725–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Di Gioia D, Bertin L, Fava F, Marchetti L (2001) Biodegradation of hydroxylated and methoxylated benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropenoic acids present in olive mill wastewaters by two bacterial strains. Res Microbiol 152:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DOE (2010) Environmental requirements: a guide for investor, Appendix K1 & K2: Acceptable condition of sewage discharge of Standard A and B. Department of Environment Malaysia, KL-MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  40. Domozych DS, Marina CM, Fangel JU, Mikkelsen MD, Ulvskov P, Willats W (2012) The cell walls of green algae: a journey through evolution and diversity. Front Plant Sci 3:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. ECOLEX (2002) Standard for Effluent Discharge Regulations. General Notice No 44. Retrieved on 28 January 2016
  42. Efaq AN, Nik Norulaini NA, Nagao H, Al-Gheethi AA, Shahadat M, Ab. Kadir MO (2015) Supercritical carbon dioxide as non-thermal alternative technology for safe handling of clinical wastes. J Environ Process 2:797–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Efaq AN, Adel AS, Mohamed RMSR (2016) Current status of greywater in Middle East countries. Waste Manage 49, A Glance at the World I-IVGoogle Scholar
  44. El-Bestawy E, El-Masry MH, El-Adl NE (2005) The potentiality of free Gram-negative bacteria for removing oil and grease from contaminated industrial effluents. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(6–7):815–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. El-Masry MH, El-Bestaway E, El-Adi NI (2004) Bioremediation of vegetable oil and grease from polluted wastewater using a sand biofilm system. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Enzing C, Ploeg M, Barbosa M, Sijtsma L (2014) Microalgae-based products for the food and feed sector: an outlook for Europe. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological StudiesGoogle Scholar
  47. Fagan MJ, Saier MHJ (1994) P-typ ATPases of eukaryotes and bacteria: sequence comparisons and construction of phylogenetic trees. J Mol Evol 38(1):57–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Farhadian M, Vachelard C, Duchez D, Larroche C (2008) In situ bioremediation of monoaromatics pollutants in groundwater: a review. Biores Technol 99:5296–5308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fath MJ, Kolter R (1993) ABC-transporters: the bacterial exporters. Microbiol Rev 57(4):995–1017Google Scholar
  50. Gehara F (1999) Activated sludge biofilm wastewater treatment system. Water Res 33:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gibson AM, Morgan RM, MacDonald N, Nikitin AG (2012) Possible effects of the presence of common household chemicals in the environment: the growth of an aquatic bacterial species on high concentrations of caffeine. J Biotech Res 4:72–79Google Scholar
  52. Godos I, Vargas VA, Blanco S, Gonzalez MCG, Soto R, Garcia-Encina PA, Becares E, Munoz R (2012) A comparative evaluation of microalgae for the degradation of piggery wastewater under photosynthetic oxygenation. Biores Technol 101:5150–5158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gong Q, Feng Y, Kang L, Luo M, Yang J (2014) Effects of light and pH on cell density of Chlorella Vulgaris. Energy Procedia 64:2012–2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gurbuz F, Ciftci H, Akcil A (2009) Biodegradation of cyanide containing effluents by Scenedesmus obliquus. J Hazard Mater 162(1):74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Henderson PJF (1991) Studies of translocation analysis. Biosci Rep 11:477–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Henry EC (2012) The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeals. Int Aquafeed 15(5):10–13Google Scholar
  57. Hultberg M, Carlsson AS, Gustafsson S (2013) Treatment of drainage solution from hydroponic greenhouse production with microalgae. Biores Technol 136:401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jácome-Pilco CR, Cristiani-Urbina E, Flores-Cotera LB, Velasco-García R, Ponce-Noyola T, Cañizares-Villanueva RO (2009) Continuous Cr(VI) removal by Scenedesmus incrassatulus in an airlift photobioreactor. Biores Technol 100(8):2388–2391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jais NM, Mohamed RMSR, Apandi WA, Matias-Peralta H (2015) Removal of nutrients and selected heavy metals in wet market wastewater by using microalgae Scenedesmus sp. Appl Mech Mater 773–774:1210–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN (2014) Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol 7(2):60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jameel AT, Olanrewaju AA (2011) Aerobic biodegradation of oil and grease in palm oil mill effluent using consortium of microorganisms In: Alam MDZ, Jameel AT, Amid A (eds) Current research and development in biotechnology engineering at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), vol. III. IIUM Press, Kuala Lumpur, pp 43–51. ISBN 9789674181444Google Scholar
  62. Jameel AT, Muyibi SA, Olanrewaju AA (2011) Comparative study of bioreactors used for palm oil mill effluent treatment based on chemical oxygen removal efficiencies In: Alam MDZ, Jameel AT, Amid A (eds) Current research and development in biotechnology engineering at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), vol. III. IIUM Press, Kuala Lumpur, p 277–284. ISBN 9789674181444Google Scholar
  63. Jansson M (1993) Uptake, exchange, and excretion of orthophosphate in phosphate-starved Scenedesmus quadricauda and Pseudomonas K7. Limnol Oceanogr 38:1162–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kadirvelu K, Goal J (2007) Eco-friendly technologies for removal of hazardous heavy metals from water and industrial wastewater. Hazardous Materials and wastewater, by Allison A. Nova Science Publishers, Lewinsky, pp 127–148Google Scholar
  65. Kim MK, Chang MU, Acreman J (2007) Enhanced production of Scenedesmus spp. (green microalgae) using a new medium containing fermented swine wastewater. Biores Technol 98:2220–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kleiner D (1981) The transport of NH3 and NH4 across biological membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 639:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kothari R, Pathak VV, Kumar V, Singh DP (2012) Experimental study for growth potential of unicellular alga chlorella phrenoidosa on dairy wastewater: an integrated approach for treatment and biofuel production. Biores Technol 116:466–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar KS, Dahms HU, Won EJ, Lee JS, Shin KH (2015) Microalgae—A promising tool for heavy metals remediation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:329–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lanciotti R, Gianotti A, Baldi D, Angrisani R, Suzzi G, Mastrocola D, Guerzoni ME (2005) Use of Yarrowia lipolytica strains for the treatment of olive mill wastewater. Biores Technol 96(3):317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Larsdotter K (2006) Wastewater treatment with microalgae—a literature review. Environmental microbiology, school of biotechnology, KTH. Vatten 62:31–38Google Scholar
  71. Li W, Shi Y, Gao L, Liu J, Cai Y (2013) Occurrence and removal of antibiotics in a municipal wastewater reclamation plant in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 92:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Li R, Zhao C, Yao B, Li D, Yan S, O’Shea KE, Song W (2016) Photochemical transformation of aminoglycoside antibiotics in simulated natural waters. Environ Sci Technol 50(6):2921–2930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu J, Ge Y, Cheng H, Wu L, Tian G (2013) Aerated swine lagoon wastewater: a promising alternative medium for Botryococcus braunii cultivation in open system. Biores Technol 139:190–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marcos VS, Carlos ADLC (2007) Biological wastewater treatment in warm climate regions, vol 1. IWA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  75. Martirani L, Giardina P, Marzullo L, Sannia G (1996) Reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive oil mill wastewater with the linolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Water Res 30:1914–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mata TM, Melo AC, Simões M, Caetano NS (2012) Parametric study of a brewery effluent treatment by microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus. Biores Technol 107:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mcardell CO, Molnar E, Suter MJ, Giger W (2003) Occurrence and fate of macrolide antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants and in the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland. Environ Sci Technol 37:5479–5486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mcelwee K, Baker J Clair D (2006) Pond fertilization: ecological approach and practical application. Oregon State University: Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support ProgramGoogle Scholar
  79. McNamara CJ, Anastasiou CC, Flaherty VO, Mitchell R (2008) Bioremediation of olive mill wastewater. Int Biod Biodeg 61:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mehta SK, Gaura JP (2005) Use of algae for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater: progress and prospects. Crit Rev Biotechnol 25(3):113–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mielke JA, Ma Y, Saqui-Salces M, Urriola PE, Chen-Shurson GC (2016) Potential use of microalgae products in swine diets. Retrieved on 8 April 2016
  82. Mohamed RMSR, Al-Gheethi AA, Jackson AM, Amir HK (2016) Multi natural filter for domestic greywater treatment in Village houses. J Am Water Works Ass (AWWA) (in Press)Google Scholar
  83. Mueller JG, Cerniglia CE, Pritchard PH (1996) Bioremediation of environments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Bioremediation: principles and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 125–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Muñoz R, Guieysse B (2006) Algal bacterial processes for the treatment of hazardous contaminants: a review. Water Res 40(15):2799–2815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nies DH (1999) Microbial heavy metal resistance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51:730–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nies DH, Koch S, Wachi S, Peitzsch N, Saier MHJ (1998) CHR, a novel family of prokaryotic proton motive force-driven transporters probably containing chromate/sulfate transporters. J Bacteriol 180:5799–5802Google Scholar
  87. Okonko IO, Shittu OB (2007) Bioremediation of wastewater and municipal water treatment using latex from Caloptropis procera (Sodom apple). Electr J Environ Agr Food Chem 6(3):1890–1904Google Scholar
  88. Olguin EJ (2012) Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a Biorefinery. Biotechnol Adv 30:1031–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Olguín EJ (2003) Phycoremediation: key issues for cost-effective nutrient removal process. Biotechnol Adv 22(8):1–91Google Scholar
  90. Orth HG, Sapkota DP (1988) Upgrading a facultative pond by implanting water hyacinth. Water Res 22:1503–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Oswal N, Sarma PM, Zinjarde SS, Pant A (2002) Palm oil mill effluent treatment by a tropical marine yeast. Biores Technol 85(1):35–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Oswald WJ, Gotaas HB (1957) Photosynthesis in sewage treatment. Trans Am Soc Civil Eng 122:73–105Google Scholar
  93. Paraskeva P, Diamadopoulos E (2006) Technologies for olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment: a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:1475–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pardy RT (1974) Some factors affecting the growth and distribution of the algal endosymbionts of Hydraviridis. Biol Bull 147:105–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Peña-Castro JM, Martínez-Jerónimo F, Esparza-García F, Cañizares-Villanueva RO (2004) Heavy metals removal by the microalga Scenedesmus incrassatulus in continuous cultures. Biores Technol 94(2):219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Piperidou C, Chaidou C, Stalikas C, Soulti K, Pilidis G, Balis C (2000) Bioremediation of olive oil mill wastewater: chemical alterations induced by Azotobacter vinelandii. J Agr Food Chem 48:1941–1948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Powell N, Shilton A, Chisti Y, Pratt S (2009) Towards a luxury uptake process via microalgae—defining the polyphosphate dynamics. Water Res 43:4207–4213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Prabakaran P, Ravindran AD (2012) Scenedesmus as a potential source of biodiesel among selected microalgae. Curr Sci 102(4):616Google Scholar
  99. Rahman A, Ellis J (2012) Bioremediation of domestic wastewater and production of bioproducts from microalgae using waste stabilization ponds. J Bioremediation Biodegrad 3(6):6199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rathnayake VN, Mallavarapu M, Bolan N, Naidu R (1999) Tolerance of heavy metals by Gram-positive soil bacteria. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 53:1185–1189Google Scholar
  101. Rawat I, Ranjit Kumar R, Mutanda T, Bux F (2011) Dual core of microalgae: phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and biomass production for sustainable biofuels production. Appl Energy 88:446–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reay DS, Nedwell DB, Priddle J, Ellis-Evans JC (1999) Temperature dependence of inorganic nitrogen uptake: reduced affinity for nitrate at suboptimal temperatures in both algae and bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(6):2577–2584Google Scholar
  103. Regine HS, Vieira F, Volesky B (2000) Biosorption: a solution to pollution. Review article. Int Microbiol 3:17–24Google Scholar
  104. Richmond A, Hu Q (2013) Biological principles of mass cultivation of photoautotrophic microalgae. In: Handbook of microalgal culture: applied phycology and biotechnology, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester, p 171–204Google Scholar
  105. Riffat R (2012) Fundamentals of wastewater treatment and engineering. International Water Association/CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  106. Saier MHJ (1994) Computer-aided analyses of transport protein sequences: gleaning evidence concerning function, structure, biogenesis, and evolution. Microbiol Rev 58:71–93Google Scholar
  107. Saier MH, Tam R, Reizer A, Reizer J (1994) Two novel families of bacterial membrane proteins concerned with nodulation, cell division and transport. Mol Microbiol 11(8):41–847Google Scholar
  108. Salim S, Vermuë MH, Wijffels RH (2012) Ratio between Autoflocculating and target microalgae affects the energy-efficient harvesting by bio-flocculation. Biores Technol 118:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sayadi S, Ellouz R (1993) Screening of white rot fungi for the treatment of olive mill waste waters. J Chem Tech Biotechnol 57:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sengar RMS, Singh KK, Singh S (2011) Application of phycoremediation technology in the treatment of sewage water to reduce pollution load. Indian J Sci Res 2(4):33–39Google Scholar
  111. Serikovna SZ, Serikovich KS, Sakenovna AS, Murzakhmetovich SS, Khamitovich AK (2013) Screening of lipid degrading microorganisms for wastewater treatment. Malay J Microbiol 9(3):219–226Google Scholar
  112. Shaaban AM, Haroun BM, Ibraheem IBM (2004) Assessment of impact of Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulgaris in the uptake of some heavy metals from culture media. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Biology Science, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, vol. 3, pp 433–450Google Scholar
  113. Shields RJ, Lupatsch I (2012) Algae for aquaculture and animal feeds. J Anim Sci 21:23–37Google Scholar
  114. Silambarasan T, Vikramathithan M, Dhandapani R, Mukesh DJ, Kalaichelvan PT (2012) Biological treatment of dairy effluent by microalgae. World J Sci Technol 2(7):132–134Google Scholar
  115. Silver S (1996) Bacterial resistances to toxic metals—A review. Gene 179:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Spolaore P, Joannis-Cassan C, Duran E, Isambert A (2006) Commercial applications of microalgae. J Biosci Bioeng 101(2):87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Takeno K, Yamaoka Y, Sasaki K (2005) Treatment of oil-containing sewage wastewater using immobilized photosynthetic bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:1385–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tchobanoglous G (1987) Aquatic plant systems for wastewater treatment; engineering considerations. In: Smith WH, Reddy KR (eds) Aquatic plants for waste treatment and resource recovery. Springer, Berlin, p 27Google Scholar
  119. Tripathi AK, Harsh NSK, Gupta N (2007) Fungal treatment of industrial effluents: a mini-review. Life Sci J 4(2):78–81Google Scholar
  120. Tuter M, Arat F, Dandik L, Aysse AH (1998) Solvent- free glycerolysis of sun flower oil and chovy oil catalysed by a-1,3 specific lipase. Biotechnol Lett 3:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. UN (2003) Economic and social commission for Western Asia wastewater treatment technologies: A General Review. United Nations, Distr. General E/ESCWA/SDPDGoogle Scholar
  122. U. S. Epa (2003) Control of pathogens and vector attraction in sewage sludge; 40 CFR Part 503. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnate 45268 Google Scholar
  123. Velickovic-Radovanovic R, Petrovic J, Kocic B (2009) Correlation between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance as quality indicator of proper use of these drugs in inpatients. Vojnosanit Pregl 66(4):307–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Research review paper. Biotechnol Adv 27(2):195–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wu PF, Mittal GS (2011) Characterization of provincial inspected slaughterhouse wastewater in Ontario, Canada. Canad Biosy Eng 53:6–9Google Scholar
  126. Wu L, Luo YP, Wan JB, Li SG (2006) Use of Yarrowia lipolytica for the treatment of oil/grease wastewater. Res Environ Sci (China) 19(5):122–125Google Scholar
  127. Xu L, Guo C, Wang F, Zheng S, Liu CZ (2011) A simple and rapid harvesting method for microalgae by in situ magnetic separation. Biores Technol 102(21):10047–10051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Yaakob Z, Fakir ZY, Ali E, Abdullah SRS, Takriff MS (2011) An overview of microalgae as a wastewater treatment. In: Jordan international energy conferenceGoogle Scholar
  129. Yaakob Z, Kamarudin KF, Rajkumar R, Takriff MS, Badar SN (2014) The current methods for biomass production of the microalgae from wastewaters: an overview. World Appl Sci J 31(10):1744–1758Google Scholar
  130. Yuliwati E, Ismail AF, Lau WI, Ng BC, Mataram A, Kassim MA (2012) Effects of process conditions in submerged ultrafiltration for refinery wastewater treatment: optimization of operating process by response surface methodology. Desalination 287:350–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zulkifli AR, Roshadah H, Tunku Khalkausar TF (2012) Control of water pollution from non-industrial premises. In: A Conference, Bayview Hotel, Langkawi Kedah, 5 Nov 2012Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Micro-pollution Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil & Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaBatu PahatMalaysia

Personalised recommendations