Advertisement

Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 1423–1430 | Cite as

Spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production and other applications

  • Nídia S. Caetano
  • Vânia F. M. Silva
  • Ana C. Melo
  • António A. Martins
  • Teresa M. MataEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This work evaluates the possibility of using spent coffee grounds (SCG) for biodiesel production and other applications. An experimental study was conducted with different solvents showing that lipid content up to 6 wt% can be obtained from SCG. Results also show that besides biodiesel production, SCG can be used as fertilizer as it is rich in nitrogen, and as solid fuel with higher heating value (HHV) equivalent to some agriculture and wood residues. The extracted lipids were characterized for their properties of acid value, density at 15 °C, viscosity at 40 °C, iodine number, and HHV, which are negatively influenced by water content and solvents used in lipid extraction. Results suggest that for lipids with high free fatty acids (FFA), the best procedure for conversion to biodiesel would be a two-step process of acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification, instead of a sole step of direct transesterification with acid catalyst. Biodiesel was characterized for its properties of iodine number, acid value, and ester content. Although these quality parameters were not within the limits of NP EN 14214:2009 standard, SCG lipids can be used for biodiesel, blended with higher-quality vegetable oils before transesterification, or the biodiesel produced from SCG can be blended with higher-quality biodiesel or even with fossil diesel, in order to meet the standard requirements.

Keywords

Biodiesel Fertilizer Lipid extraction Solid fuel Spent coffee grounds 

References

  1. Adi AJ, Noor ZM (2009) Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste vermicomposting. Bioresour Technol 100:1027–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hamamre Z, Foerster S, Hartmann F, Kroger M, Kaltschmitt M (2012) Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds as a renewable source for fatty acid methyl ester manufacturing. Fuel 96:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alves B, Nascimento E, Aquino F, Chang R, Morais S (2007) Chemical composition of roasted coffee from the Cerrado and South Minas Gerais [Composição química de cafés torrados do Cerrado e do Sul de Minas Gerais] (in Portuguese). Ciência & Engenharia 16(1/2):9–15Google Scholar
  4. APHA (1999) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Bizzo W (2003) Generation, distribution and use of steam. Apostila de Curso. UNICAMP, Campinas (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  6. Caetano NS, Teixeira JIM, Mata TM (2012a) Enzymatic catalysis of vegetable oil with ethanol in the presence of co-solvents. Chem Eng Trans 26:81–86. doi: 10.3303/CET1226014 Google Scholar
  7. Caetano NS, Silva VFM, Mata TM (2012b) Valorization of coffee grounds for biodiesel production. Chem Eng Trans 26:267–272. doi: 10.3303/CET1226045 Google Scholar
  8. ChartsBin.com (2014) Current Worldwide Annual Coffee Consumption per capita. http://chartsbin.com/view/581. Accessed 22 Mar 2014
  9. Dinsdale RM, Hwakes FR, Hwaked DL (1996) The mesophilic and thermophikic anaerobic digestion of coffee waste containing coffee grounds. Water Res 30:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EN 14214 (2009) Automotive fuels: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines—requirements and test methods. European Committee for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  11. Givens D, Barber W (1986) In vivo evaluation of spent coffee grounds as a ruminant feeds. Agric Wastes 18:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kante K, Delgado CN, Mendes JR, Bandosz TJ (2012) Spent coffee-based activated carbon: specific surface features and their importance for H2S separation process. J Hazard Mater 201–202:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kondamudi N, Mohapatra SK, Misra M (2008) Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy. J Agric Food Chem 56:11757–11760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kwon EE, Yi H, Jeon YJ (2013) Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds. Bioresour Technol 136:475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lago R, Antoniassi R, Freitas S (2001) Proximate composition and of amino acids in green coffee, roasted coffee and soluble coffee grounds. Embrapa—Agroindústria de Alimentos (in Portuguese), II Simpósio de pesquisa dos Cafés do Brasil, pp 1473–1478Google Scholar
  16. Lavecchia R, Pugliese A, Zuorro A (2010) Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by spent tea leaves. Chem Eng Trans 19:73–78. doi: 10.3303/CET1019013 Google Scholar
  17. Lepage G, Roy CC (1984) Improved recovery of fatty acid through direct transesterification without prior extraction or purification. J Lipid Res 25:1391–1396Google Scholar
  18. Mata TM, Martins AA (2010) Biodiesel Production Processes. In: Delgado JMPQ (ed) Current trends in chemical engineering. Studium Press LLC, Houston, pp 313–343Google Scholar
  19. Mata TM, Cardoso N, Ornelas M, Neves S, Caetano NS (2010) Sustainable production of biodiesel from tallow, lard and poultry and its quality evaluation. Chem Eng Trans 19:13–18. doi: 10.3303/CET1019003 Google Scholar
  20. Mata TM, Martins AA, Sikdar S, Costa CAV (2011) Sustainability considerations of biodiesel based on supply chain analysis. Clean Technol Environ Policy 13(5):655–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mata TM, Melo AC, Simões M, Caetano NS (2012) Parametric study of a brewery effluent treatment by microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus. Bioresour Technol 107:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mata TM, Martins AA, Sikdar S, Costa CAV, Caetano NS (2013) Sustainability analysis of biofuel processes through the supply chain using indicators. Sustain Energy Technol Assess 3:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Melo G, Melo V, Melo W (2007) Composting. Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Jaboticabal, p 10 in PortugueseGoogle Scholar
  24. Mussatto S, Carneiro L, Silva J, Roberto I, Teixeira J (2011a) A study on chemical constituents and sugars extraction from spent coffee grounds. Carbohydr Polym 83:368–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mussatto S, Machado E, Martins S, Teixeira J (2011b) Production, composition and application of coffee and its industrial residues. Food and Bioprocess Technol. 4(5):661–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mussatto S, Machado EMS, Carneiro LM, Teixeira JA (2012) Sugars metabolism and ethanol production from different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates. Appl Energy 92:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nogueira A, Costa D (1999) Temperature range for composting solid organic waste. Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Brasil, p 8 (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  28. Oliveira LS, Franca AS, Camargos RRS, Ferraz VP (2008) Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresour Tecnhol 99:3244–3250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Panusa A, Zuoro A, Lavecchia E, Marrosu G, Petrucci R (2013) Recovery of natural antioxidants from spent coffee grounds. J Agric Food Chem 61:4162–4168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sousa C (2009) Energy recovery from industrial textiles and polymeric wastes. MSc thesis, Universidade do Minho, 130 pp (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  31. USDA (2013) Coffee: world markets and trade. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  32. Vardon DR, Moser BR, Zheng W, Witkin K, Evangelista RL, Strathmann TJ, Rajagopalan K, Sharma BK (2013) Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil, and biochar. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1:1286–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nídia S. Caetano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vânia F. M. Silva
    • 1
  • Ana C. Melo
    • 2
  • António A. Martins
    • 3
  • Teresa M. Mata
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringSchool of Engineering (ISEP), Polytechnic Institute of Porto (IPP)PortoPortugal
  2. 2.Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP)Biotechnology and Energy (LEPABE)PortoPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Technology (FCNET)Oporto Lusophone UniversityPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations