Advertisement

Metrics for supply chain sustainability

  • Roland CliftEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Most interpretations of sustainable development recognise that there are constraints on long-term human activities imposed by material and energy availability and by the capacity of the planet to accommodate wastes and emissions; inter- and intra-generational equity within these constraints is then an ethical principle underlying sustainability. This leads to identifying three dimensions of sustainable development: techno-economic, ecological and social. This paper reviews the development of indicators to reflect these three dimensions, applicable to industrial sectors, companies and broad groups of products or services. Indicators of environmental and economic performance are relatively well established. They can be combined to indicate the sustainability of products, services and supply chains. Indicators of social performance are more problematic, particularly indicators to describe the social value of products and services. Cases from the process, petroleum and petrochemicals, electronics and fast moving consumer goods sectors are reviewed, showing that social indicators must be developed through public participation.

Keywords

Supply Chain Life Cycle Assessment Gross Domestic Product Social Benefit Social Indicator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Azapagic A, Perdan S (2000) Indicators of sustainable development for industry: a general framework. Trans Inst Chem Eng 73B:243–261Google Scholar
  2. Banner M (1999) Why and how (not) to value the environment. In: Christian ethics and contemporary moral problems. Cambridge University Press, London, Chapter 5Google Scholar
  3. Behmanesh N, Roque JA, Allen D (1993) An analysis of normalized measures of pollution prevention. Pollut Prev Rev, Spring:161–166Google Scholar
  4. Biswas G, Clift R, Davis G, Ehrenfeld J, Förster R, Jolliet O, Knoepfel I, Luterbacher U, Russell D, Hunkeler D (1998) Ecometrics:identification, categorisation, and life cycle validation. Int J LCA 3:184–190Google Scholar
  5. Clarke L, Clift R, Wehrmeyer W, King H, McKeown P (2002) Addressing employees' concerns to facilitate environmentally conscious decision making innovation. In: 10th International Conference of the Greening of Industry Network, Göteborg, JuneGoogle Scholar
  6. Clayton AHJ, Radcliffe NJ (1996) Sustainability—a systems approach. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Clift R (1998) Engineering for the environment: the new model engineer and her role. Trans Inst Chem Eng 76B:151–160Google Scholar
  8. Clift R (2000) Contribution to forum on sustainability. Clean Prod Process 2:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clift R (2001) Clean technology and industrial ecology. In: Harrison RM (ed) Pollution: causes, effects and control, 4th edn. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, Chapter 16 (pp 411–444)Google Scholar
  10. Clift R, Wright L (2000) Relationships between environmental impacts and added value along the supply chain. Technol Forecast Soc Change 65:281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cunningham B, Wehrmeyer W, Clift R, Brewer L (2002) Integrating social concerns into the decision-making process associated with the petroleum industry. In: 10th International Conference of the Greening of Industry Network, Göteborg, JuneGoogle Scholar
  12. DETR (1999a) A better quality of life. UK Department of Envronment, Transport and Rural Affairs, The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. DETR (1999b) Monitoring progress: indicators for the strategy for sustainable development in the United Kingdom. UK Department of Envronment, Transport and Rural Affairs, The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. ECTEL (1997) End-of-life management of cellular phones: an industry perspective and response. ECTEL Cellular Phones Takeback Working Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. IChemE (2002) The sustainability metrics—sustainable development progress metrics recommended for use in the process industries. Institution of Chemical Engineers, RugbyGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson T (1996) Material concerns—pollution, profit and quality of life. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Jackson T, Clift R (1998) Where's the profit in industrial ecology? J Ind Ecol 2:3–5Google Scholar
  18. Lehni M (1999) Measuring eco-efficiency with cross-comparable indicators. WBCSD, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  19. Maslow A (1954) Motivation and personality. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Max-Neef M, Elizade A, Hopenhayn M (1991) Human scale development—conception, application and further reflections. Apex Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. McLaren J, Parkinson SD, Jackson T (2000) Modelling material cascades—frameworks for the environmental assessment of recycling systems. Resour Conserv Recycling 31:83–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. OECD (2000) Framework for integrating socio-economic analysis in chemical risk management decision-making. Report ENV/JM/MONO (2000)5. Organisation for Economic and Cultural Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  23. OECD (2002) Technical guidance document on the use of socio-economic analysis in chemical risk management decision-making. Report ENV/JM/MONO (2002)10. Organisation for Economic and Cultural Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. Oxley Green AS, Wright L, Burningham K, Clift R (2002) Assessing the environmental views and concerns of Nokia employees as part of stakeholder participation. In: 10th International Conference of the Greening of Industry Network, Göteborg, JuneGoogle Scholar
  25. Ransome T, Clift R (2002) The supply, use and waste management of domestic clothes washing. In: Wrisberg N, Udo de Haes HA (eds) Analytical tools for environmental design and management in a systems perspective. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Appendix C (pp 205–230)Google Scholar
  26. RCEP (1998) Setting environmental standards. 21st Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. RCEP (2000) Energy: the changing climate. 22nd report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. RCEP (2003) Chemicals in products. 24th Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Reid D (1995) Sustainable development—an introductory guide. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Saling P (2002) Realising more sustainable products and processes in different fields of business by application of the eco-efficiency analysis. In: NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Maribor. Clean technol Environ Policy, in pressGoogle Scholar
  31. Taylor AP, Postlethwaite D (1996) Overall business impact assessment (OB1A). In: 4th LCA Case Studies Symposium. SETAC-Europe, Brussels, pp 181–187Google Scholar
  32. WCED (1987) World Commission on Environment and Development: our common future. Report of the Brundtland Commission. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilkinson R (2000) Mind the gap—hierarchies, health and human evolution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Wright M, Allen D, Clift R, Sas H (1997) Measuring corporate environmental performance: the ICI environmental burden system. J Ind Ecol 1:117–127Google Scholar
  35. Zakotnik I, Radej B (2002) Environment as a factor of national competitiveness in manufacturing. In: NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Maribor. Clean technol Environ Policy, in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Environmental StrategyUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations