Treatment pattern, prognostic factors, and outcome in patients with infection due to pan-drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria


The present study investigated the clinical course, treatment pattern, prognostic factors, and outcome of patients with pun-drug resistant (PDR) infections. This was a retrospective single-center cohort study including consecutive eligible patients with a PDR infection hospitalized at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, between January 2010 and June 2018. In total, 65 patients with infections due to PDR gram-negative pathogens were identified. The median age was 64 years (interquartile range, IQR: 45.5–74.5) and the median Charlson comorbidity index 3.0 (IQR: 1.0–5.75). Of the 65 PDR isolates, 31 (48%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 28 (43%) Acinetobacter baumannii, and 6 (9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most common empirical therapy was colistin-based combination (n = 32; 49%), followed by non-colistin, non-tigecycline combination (n = 25; 39%), and carbapenemes + tigecycline (n = 8; 12%). The empirical therapy was effective in 50%, 37.5%, and 8% of patients receiving colistin combination, carbapenemes – tigecycline, and non-colistin, non-tigecycline combination, respectively (p value = 0.003). The infection-related in-hospital mortality was 32% (95% confidence interval, CI: 21–45%). Three factors were significantly associated with infection-related in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis: Charlson comorbidity index (odds ratio, OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0–2.3, p value = 0.030), prior steroid use (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.0–17.0, p value = 0.049), and empirical treatment with non-colistin, non-tigecycline combination (OR: 7.5; 95% CI: 1.7–32.8, p value = 0.008). Infections due to PDR pathogens are associated with considerable mortality. Our results support the use of colistin and/or tigecycline-based combinations as empirical therapy when infection due to PDR pathogens is suspected.

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Correspondence to Diamantis P. Kofteridis.

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Kofteridis, D.P., Andrianaki, A.M., Maraki, S. et al. Treatment pattern, prognostic factors, and outcome in patients with infection due to pan-drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis (2020).

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  • Pan-drug-resistant bacteria
  • Klebsiella pneumonia
  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Colistin