Duodenoscope-associated infections: a review

  • Gheorghe G. Balan
  • Catalin Victor SfartiEmail author
  • Stefan Andrei Chiriac
  • Carol Stanciu
  • Anca Trifan


Flexible digestive endoscopes are used for the management of various conditions with hundreds of thousands of therapeutic procedures performed worldwide each year. Duodenoscopes are indispensable tools for the delivery of minimally invasive vital care of numerous pancreaticobiliary disorders. Despite the fact that nosocomial infections after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have always been among the most frequently cited postprocedural complications, recent emergence of duodenoscope-transmitted multiple drug-resistant bacterial infections has led to intense research and debate yet with no clearly delineated solution. Duodenoscope-transmitted nosocomial infections have become one of the most visible topics in the recent literature. Hundreds of high-impact articles have therefore been published in the last decade. This review article discusses how such infections were seen in the past and what is the current situation in both research and practice and thus tries to solve some of the unanswered questions for the future. With the persistence of nosocomial infections despite strict adherence to both manufacturer-issued reprocessing protocols and international guidelines and regulations, an urgent and proper microbiologically driven common action is needed for controlling such nosocomial worldwide threat.


Duodenoscope Nosocomial infections Biofilm Reprocessing Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grigore T. PopaUniversity of Medicine and Pharmacy of IașiIașiRomania
  2. 2.Institute of Gastroenterology and HepatologySt. Spiridon Emergency Hospital of IașiIașiRomania

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