Long-term durability and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection with or without antibiotic exposure

  • Christine H. LeeEmail author
  • Jocelyn Chai
  • Keely Hammond
  • Seong Ran Jeon
  • Yogita Patel
  • Christiana Goldeh
  • Peter Kim
Original Article


Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a safe and effective treatment for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (RCDI) in the short term. However, there are a paucity of data on long-term durability and safety of FMT. The aim of this study is to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of FMT for RCDI. Ninety-four patients underwent FMT via retention enema for RCDI between 2008 and 2012 and completed a follow-up questionnaire 4 to 8 years following the last FMT. Of these, 32 were unreachable and 37 were deceased; 23 of the remaining 25 participants completed the survey. No CDI recurrences were reported in patients treated with FMT; 12 of the 23 participants (52.2%) received at least one course of non-CDI antibiotic(s). Nine participants (40.9%) received probiotics and 4 (17.4%) received both non-CDI antibiotics and probiotics. All 23 participants rated their overall health compared with pre-FMT. Current health was considered “much better” in 17 patients (73.9%); “somewhat better” in 3 patients (13.0%); and “about the same” in 3 patients (13.0%). A total of 11 participants (47.8%) reported an increase in weight of more than 5 kg (kg) post-FMT and 9 participants (39.1%) reported no change in weight (± 5 kg). Four of the 23 participants (17.4%) reported improvement or resolution (undifferentiated colitis, n = 1; Crohn’s disease, n = 2; ulcerative colitis, n = 1) of pre-existing gastrointestinal condition following FMT. Eight of 23 participants (34.8%) experienced new medical condition(s) post-FMT. The long-term efficacy (48–96 months) of FMT for RCDI appears to be durable even after non-CDI antibiotic use. Thirty percent had improvement of their pre-existing medical conditions following FMT; 73.9% reported “much better” overall health following FMT.


Long-term follow-up Fecal microbiota transplantation Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

CL received grants from Physicians Services Incorporated, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Rebiotix and Seres Therapeutics to conduct fecal microbiota transplant trials. JC, KH, SRJ, YP, CG, and PK have no conflicts to declare.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board. An informed consent was obtained from eligible participants prior to distributing the questionnaire.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vancouver Island Health AuthorityVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.St Joseph’s Healthcare HamiltonHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Pathology and Molecular MedicineMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  5. 5.Digestive Disease Centre, Institute for Digestive ResearchSoonchunhyang University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  6. 6.University of GuelphGuelphCanada

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