Non-Typhi, non-Paratyphi Salmonella-related hospitalisations in Spain: trends, clinical aspects, risk factors for worse prognosis and hospital costs

  • Macarena Garrido-EstepaEmail author
  • P. Latasa
  • G. Y. Ordóñez-León
  • M. Martínez-Avilés
  • A. de la Torre
  • L. García-Comas
Original Article


This study reviews non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS)-related hospitalisations at National level in Spain between 2010 and 2015. NTS hospitalisations were obtained from the National Registry of Hospitalisations. A descriptive analysis of the hospitalisations was performed, including hospitalisation rates (HR) and case-fatality rates (CFR%) calculation. For those with NTS as Main Diagnosis logistic regression were used to estimate the relationship between the different factors and death outcome. 21,660 registered NTS-related hospitalisations were described (88.8% with Salmonella coded as Main Diagnosis). Average HR2010–2015 was 7.7 (range, 7.3 to 8.1) hospitalisations/100,000 population. Those with NTS infections as Secondary Diagnosis were on average (p < 0.001) older (47.9 vs. 36.5 years), presented worse Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.1 vs. 1.2), higher CFR% (4.8% vs. 0.7%), spent more days hospitalised (15.1 vs. 5.8 days), and generated more costs (6173 vs. 4272 euros/per hospitalisation) than those with NTS as Main Diagnosis. For those with NTS as Main Diagnosis increased risk of death was related to being > 64 years old (OR = 20.99; p < 0.001); presenting septicaemia (OR = 15.82; p < 0.001) or localised infections (OR = 3.98; p = 0.061); Charlson Comorbidity Index > 3 (OR = 4.57; p < 0.001); a non-HIV co-infection (OR = 1.80; p = 0.013); other risk factors (OR = 5.70; p < 0.001); bowel perforation (OR = 70.30; p < 0.001); or acute renal failure (OR = 1.95; p = 0.001). In those with Salmonella as Main Diagnosis, among all complications, bowel perforation presented the strongest association with death outcome. Clinical practice guidelines can help to identify patients at risk of bowel perforation to reduce the fatality of the disease.


Salmonella Salmonellosis Outcomes Costs Rates Comorbidities Hospitalisations Epidemiology 



This article is a complementary study to support the research program JRP06-FBZ-1-NOVA and S2013/ABI-2747.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Science, Innovation and UniversitiesMadridSpain
  2. 2.Animal Health Research Center. INIA. CISA. ValdeolmosMadridSpain
  3. 3.Subdirectorate of Epidemiology, Health Department of the Community of MadridMadridSpain
  4. 4.Campo de Gibraltar Health Management AreaPreventive Medicine Service. Hospital de La LíneaCádizSpain

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