Rapid detection of OXA-48-like, KPC, NDM, and VIM carbapenemases in Enterobacterales by a new multiplex immunochromatographic test

  • Christopher Greissl
  • Ahmad Saleh
  • Axel HamprechtEmail author
Original Article


The rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria is indispensable to optimize treatment and avoid the further spread of these organisms. While phenotypic tests are time-consuming and PCR is expensive and not available in many routine laboratories, immunochromatographic tests (ICT) can provide rapid results at moderate cost. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the new ICT RESIST-4 O.K.N.V. K-SeT (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) which can detect the four most prevalent carbapenemases: OXA-48-like, KPC, NDM, and VIM. Additionally, we analyzed the impact of different culture conditions on the sensitivity. The new ICT was challenged with 169 carbapenem-resistant isolates. Of these, 125 were carbapenemase producers: 43 OXA-48-like, 15 KPC, 29 NDM, and 43 VIM. The ICT correctly detected 129 of the 130 carbapenemases resulting in a sensitivity of 99.2% and specificity of 100% when tested from Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). The sensitivity of the assay increased to 100% when performed from zinc-supplemented MHA and sheep blood agar (SBA) or when the inoculum was harvested from the inhibition zone of an ertapenem disk. All carbapenemase-negative carbapenem-resistant bacteria tested negative and no cross-reaction was observed. The new ICT is an excellent test for rapid diagnostic of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives in the routine laboratory. It is easy to handle and provides rapid results with a high sensitivity. For best results, we recommend to obtain the inoculum from a medium with sufficient zinc or from the inhibition zone of an ertapenem disk.


Carbapenemase Immunochromatographic test Enterobacterales Enterobacteriaceae New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase Mueller-Hinton agar 



The RESIST-4 O.K.N.V. K-SeT was supplied free of charge for evaluation by Coris BioConcept. We thank Stephan Göttig from the University Hospital of Frankfurt for providing further carbapenemase-producing isolates.

Funding information

This study was supported by grants from the Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne. AH was supported by the German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

10096_2018_3432_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (131 kb)
ESM 1 (PPTX 131 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and HygieneUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.DZIF (German Centre for Infection Research), partner site Bonn-CologneCologneGermany

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