Management of adult Clostridium difficile digestive contaminations: a literature review

  • Fanny Mathias
  • Christophe Curti
  • Marc Montana
  • Charléric Bornet
  • Patrice VanelleEmail author


Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) dramatically increased during the last decade and cause a major public health problem. Current treatments are limited by the high disease recurrence rate, severity of clinical forms, disruption of the gut microbiota, and colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In this review, we resumed current treatment options from official recommendation to promising alternatives available in the management of adult CDI, with regard to severity and recurring or non-recurring character of the infection. Vancomycin remains the first-line antibiotic in the management of mild to severe CDI. The use of metronidazole is discussed following the latest US recommendations that replaced it by fidaxomicin as first-line treatment of an initial episode of non-severe CDI. Fidaxomicin, the most recent antibiotic approved for CDI in adults, has several advantages compared to vancomycin and metronidazole, but its efficacy seems limited in cases of multiple recurrences. Innovative therapies such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and antitoxin antibodies were developed to limit the occurrence of recurrence of CDI. Research is therefore very active, and new antibiotics are being studied as surotomycin, cadazolid, and rinidazole.


Clostridium difficile Fidaxomicin Fecal microbiota transplantation Antitoxin antibodies Surotomycin Cadazolid 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut de Chimie Radicalaire ICR, UMR CNRS 7273, Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Chimie Radicalaire, Faculté de PharmacieAix Marseille UniversitéMarseille Cedex 05France
  2. 2.Service Central de la Qualité et de l’information Pharmaceutiques (SCQIP), Hôpital de la ConceptionAssistance publique–Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP–HM)MarseilleFrance
  3. 3.Pharmacie Usage Intérieur, Hôpital NordAssistance publique–Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP–HM)Marseille Cedex 20France
  4. 4.Pharmacie Usage Intérieur, Hôpital de la ConceptionAssistance publique–Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP–HM)MarseilleFrance

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