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Roles of intestinal microbiota in response to cancer immunotherapy

  • Jing Cong
  • Xiaochun ZhangEmail author
Review

Abstract

Cancer immunotherapy has been significantly effective on multiple cancers; however, there are still a distinct number of non-responding patients and various immune-related adverse events in responding patients. It is known that heterogeneity of intestinal microbiota may lead to different outcomes of therapy. Previous studies have reported that intestinal microbiota is probably attributed to influence the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Some intestinal bacteria could synergize with immune checkpoint blockade agents and optimize the immune response against multiple cancers. Therefore, understanding the roles of intestinal microbiota could help to improve the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we first introduced the close relationships between intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune system. Then, we described the emerging evidences that intestinal microbiota responses to cancer immunotherapy. Finally, we briefly reviewed the technical development on intestinal microbiota research.

Keywords

Intestinal microbiota Intestinal immune system Cancer immunotherapy Adverse side Research technology 

Abbreviations

AMPs

Antimicrobial peptides

CAR

Chimeric antigen receptor

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4

DCs

Dendritic cells

ICIs

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

LP

Lamina propria

mAbs

Monoclonal antibodies

NLRs

Nod-like receptors

PRRs

Pattern recognition receptors

PD-1

Programmed cell death 1

PD-L1

Programmed cell death ligand 1

REGIIIγ

Regenerating islet-derived protein 3γ

REGIIIβ

Regenerating islet-derived protein 3β

SCFA

Short-chain fatty acids

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

Tregs

T regulatory cells

TGF-β

Tumor growth factor-β

Notes

Acknowledgements

The assistance of the staff is gratefully appreciated.

Funding

This study was supported by the funding from Project funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M602094), Qingdao Application Research Project (2016047), and Qingdao People’s Livelihood Science and Technology Program (16-6-2-3-nsh).

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyThe Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao UniversityQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Cancer InstituteQingdaoChina

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