High levels of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA carriage in healthy population of Algiers revealed by additional enrichment and multisite screening

  • Kenza Antri
  • Madjid AkkouEmail author
  • Coralie Bouchiat
  • Michèle Bes
  • Patricia Martins-Simoes
  • Olivier Dauwalder
  • Anne Tristan
  • Hélène Meugnier
  • Jean-Philippe Rasigade
  • Jerome Etienne
  • François Vandenesch
  • Frédéric Laurent
  • Nadjia Ramdani-Bouguessa
Original Article


The purpose of the research is to characterize Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy population of Algiers, to assess the impact on diagnostic performance of systematic additional broth enrichment, and to ascertain the additional benefits of multiple site screening. In order to more accurately determine the prevalence of S. aureus colonization, the swab specimens from multiple screening sites were incubated in brain-heart broth before agar plating. From 2009 to 2011, 1176 samples were collected from 459 participants (201 adults and 258 children). The additional enrichment detection step significantly increased S. aureus detection rates (p < 0.0001). S. aureus nasal detection was positive in 37.8% of adults, and the addition of throat samplings significantly increased the S. aureus detection rate up to 54.7% (p < 0.001). S. aureus nasal detection was positive in 37.6% of children. The addition of throat samplings in children significantly increased the S. aureus detection rate up to 53.1% (p < 0.001) and that of anal samplings up to 59.7%. The overall prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 5.2% (3% of adults and 7% of children). spa typing of all isolates revealed a diverse but strongly clonal S. aureus population structure. This approach involving multiple anatomical sampling sites and an additional enrichment of the swabs before conventional culture significantly increases the detection rate of S. aureus carriers and may prove valuable to improve global S. aureus infection prevention.


Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Carriage screening Body sites Diagnosis 



We are grateful to all the staff of the Microbiology Department of the CHU Mustapha Bacha Algiers, especially Mr. Tazir Mohamed, Bachtarzi Mohamed-Azzedine, Benbouzid Djazia, Belghit Yousra Bouchra, and Nasseh Chahinez, the USTHB students, as well as all the staff of the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci in Lyon.


This study was supported by Santé Publique France (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee (Ethics Committee of Mustapha Bacha Hospital).

Informed consent

A written consent was obtained from the participants or their legal representatives (for participants younger than 16 years) before collecting samples.

Supplementary material

10096_2018_3279_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3173 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenza Antri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Madjid Akkou
    • 3
    Email author return OK on get
  • Coralie Bouchiat
    • 4
    • 5
  • Michèle Bes
    • 4
    • 5
  • Patricia Martins-Simoes
    • 4
    • 5
  • Olivier Dauwalder
    • 4
    • 5
  • Anne Tristan
    • 4
    • 5
  • Hélène Meugnier
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jean-Philippe Rasigade
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jerome Etienne
    • 4
    • 5
  • François Vandenesch
    • 4
    • 5
  • Frédéric Laurent
    • 4
    • 5
  • Nadjia Ramdani-Bouguessa
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Service de MicrobiologieCentre Hospitalo-Universitaire Mustapha BachaAlgiersAlgeria
  2. 2.Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, Faculté des Sciences BiologiquesUniversité des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari-BoumedièneAlgiersAlgeria
  3. 3.Institut des Sciences VétérinairesUniversité Blida1BlidaAlgeria
  4. 4.CIRI, International Center for Infectiology ResearchUniversité de LyonLyonFrance
  5. 5.Centre National de Référence des StaphylocoquesHospices Civils de LyonLyonFrance
  6. 6.Laboratoire d’analyses MédicalesAlgiersAlgeria

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