Risk prediction in infective endocarditis by modified MELD-XI score
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The suitability of the model for end-stage liver disease excluding international normalized ratio (MELD-XI) score to predict adverse outcomes in infective endocarditis (IE) patients remains uncertain. This study was performed to explore the prognostic value of the MELD-XI score and modified MELD-XI score for patients with IE. A total of 858 patients with IE were consecutively enrolled and classified into two groups: MELD-XI ≤ 10 (n = 588) and MELD-XI > 10 (n = 270). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors independent of MELD-XI score. Higher MELD-XI score was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (15.6 vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001) and major adverse clinical events (33.3 vs. 18.4%, p < 0.001). MELD-XI score was an independent predictor of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% CI, 1.02–1.10, p = 0.005). Based on a multivariate analysis, NYHA class III or IV (3 points), C-reactive protein > 9.5 mg/L (4 points), and non-surgical treatment (6 points) were added to MELD-XI score. Modified MELD-XI score produced higher predictive power than previous (AUC 0.823 vs. 0.701, p < 0.001). The cumulative incidence of long-term mortality (median 29 months) was significantly higher in patients with modified MELD-XI score > 13 than those without (log-rank = 25.30, p < 0.001). Modified MELD-XI score was independently associated with long-term mortality (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.04–1.12, p < 0.001). MELD-XI score could be used as a risk assessment tool in IE. Furthermore, modified MELD-XI score remained simple and more effective in predicting poor prognosis.
KeywordsInfective endocarditis Risk score Prognosis
This study was supported by Science and Technology Projects of Guangdong (grant no. 2017ZC0331).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The present study was conducted in Guangdong general hospital and approved by the hospital ethics committee.
Written informed consent was obtained.
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