Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Pakistan: molecular characterisation by microarray technology

  • Bushra Jamil
  • Darius Gawlik
  • Muhammad Ali Syed
  • Asim Ali Shah
  • Shahid Ahmad Abbasi
  • Elke Müller
  • Annett Reißig
  • Ralf Ehricht
  • Stefan Monecke
Original Article


The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Pakistan is known to be high, but very few studies have described the molecular epidemiology of the different MRSA clones circulating in the country. Forty-four MRSA isolates were collected from two tertiary care hospitals of the Rawalpindi district of Pakistan. All strains were identified by a conventional phenotypic method and then subjected to genotyping by microarray hybridisation. Six clonal complexes (CCs) and 19 strains were identified. The most commonly identified strains were: (i) Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive CC772-MRSA-V, “Bengal Bay Clone” (ten isolates; 22.3%), (ii) ST239-MRSA [III + ccrC] (five isolates) and (iii) a CC8-MRSA-IV strain, as well as CC6-MRSA-IV (both with four isolates; 9.1% each). Several of the strains detected indicated epidemiological links to the Middle Eastern/Arabian Gulf region. Further studies are needed to type MRSA from countries with less known epidemiology and to monitor the distribution and spread of strains, as well as possible links to global travel, migration and commerce.



Muhammad Ali Syed would like to acknowledge the Vice Chancellor and the Office of Research, Innovation and Commercialization (ORIC) of the University of Haripur for the financial support.

Funding information

A part of the study was supported by the Vice Chancellor and the Office of Research, Innovation and Commercialization (ORIC) of the University of Haripur, Pakistan. The participating institutions covered the costs of experiments performed in the respective institutions and granted the time needed to perform this study. There was no external funding for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Darius Gawlik, Elke Müller, Annett Reissig, Ralf Ehricht and Stefan Monecke are employees of Abbott (Alere Technologies GmbH), Jena, the company that manufactures the microarrays used for this study.

Informed consent and ethics approval

Ethic committees consent was not requested since isolates were not purposefully obtained for this study but retrospectively selected after performing routine diagnostics.

Supplementary material

10096_2017_3161_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (125 kb)
Supplemental file 1 Full hybridisation profiles and additional information on the origin of the isolates. (XLSX 124 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bushra Jamil
    • 1
    • 2
  • Darius Gawlik
    • 3
    • 4
  • Muhammad Ali Syed
    • 5
  • Asim Ali Shah
    • 6
  • Shahid Ahmad Abbasi
    • 7
  • Elke Müller
    • 3
    • 4
  • Annett Reißig
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ralf Ehricht
    • 3
    • 4
  • Stefan Monecke
    • 3
    • 4
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS)RawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Abbott (Alere Technologies GmbH)JenaGermany
  4. 4.InfectoGnostics Research CampusJenaGermany
  5. 5.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of HaripurHaripurPakistan
  6. 6.Department of PathologyFauji Foundation HospitalRawalpindiPakistan
  7. 7.Al-Sayed Hospital (Pvt) Ltd.RawalpindiPakistan
  8. 8.Institute for Medical Microbiology and HygieneTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

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