Impact of antimicrobial stewardship and rapid microarray testing on patients with Gram-negative bacteremia

  • K. R. RivardEmail author
  • V. Athans
  • S. W. Lam
  • S. M. Gordon
  • G. W. Procop
  • S. S. Richter
  • E. Neuner
Original Article


A rapid microarray assay, Nanosphere Verigene® Gram-negative blood culture test (BC-GN), detects four Gram-negative species, four Gram-negative genera, and six resistance genes directly from positive blood culture samples, shortening the time from Gram stain to pathogen and resistance-gene identification. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the BC-GN paired with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antimicrobial and clinical outcomes. Patients with Gram-negative bacteremia were compared before (n = 456) and after (n = 421) BC-GN implementation. The primary objective was to compare time from Gram stain to antimicrobial switch pre- and post-implementation. Time from Gram stain to effective treatment, in-hospital mortality, and hospital length of stay were also compared. The number and type of antimicrobial switches were similar between groups. Median (IQR) time from Gram stain to antimicrobial switch was significantly decreased in the post group, 28.6 (8.6–56.9) h vs 44.1 (18.9–64.6) h, p = 0.004. In patients on ineffective antimicrobial therapy at the time of result, median time to effective therapy was lower in the post group, 8.8 (5.5–18.4) h vs 24.5 (4.9–44.3) h, p = 0.034. Median (IQR) hospital length of stay was also decreased in the post group, 7 (5–15) days vs 9 (4.5–21) days, p = 0.001. The rate of in-hospital mortality was similar between groups, 11.6% (pre) vs 11.4% (post), p = 0.87. Rapid microarray testing on blood cultures combined with active antimicrobial stewardship intervention was associated with decreased time to antimicrobial switch, time to effective therapy, and hospital length of stay.


Blood cultures Antimicrobial stewardship Gram-negative bacteremia Rapid diagnostic tests 


Compliance with ethical standards


No funding was received to conduct this study.

Conflicts of interest

S.S.R. receives research funding from Nanosphere and BioMerieux.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Informed consent

The study protocol was approved by the Cleveland Clinic Health System institutional review board, which waived the requirement for informed consent due to the retrospective nature of the evaluation.

Supplementary material

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ESM 1 (DOCX 13 kb)
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ESM 2 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Rivard
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. Athans
    • 1
  • S. W. Lam
    • 1
  • S. M. Gordon
    • 2
  • G. W. Procop
    • 3
  • S. S. Richter
    • 3
  • E. Neuner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Infectious DiseasesCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory MedicineCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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