Serious fungal infections in Ecuador

  • J. Zurita
  • D. W. Denning
  • A. Paz-y-Miño
  • M. B. Solís
  • L. M. Arias
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Global Fungal Disease Burden


There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15–50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

JZ, DWD, APyM, MBD, LMA: nothing to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Zurita
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. W. Denning
    • 3
  • A. Paz-y-Miño
    • 2
  • M. B. Solís
    • 2
  • L. M. Arias
    • 1
  1. 1.Facultad de MedicinaPontificia Universidad Católica del EcuadorQuitoEcuador
  2. 2.Unidad de Investigaciones en BiomedicinaZurita & Zurita LaboratoriosQuitoEcuador
  3. 3.National Aspergillosis CentreUniversity Hospital of South Manchester and University of ManchesterManchesterUK

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