Comparison of Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in clinical fecal specimens

  • E. Aho-LaukkanenEmail author
  • J. J. Hirvonen
  • K. Saha
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to investigate the usability and performance of the Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens. Of the 186 stool specimens, 53 (28.5%) were considered true-positive for norovirus (NoV). Of the true-positive specimens, Xpert detected 53 and RidaGene detected 52. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 91.0–98.5%] for the Xpert assay, and 98.1% (95% CI, 94.4–100%) and 97.0% (95% CI, 94.1–99.9%) for the RidaGene assay. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) were 88.3% and 100% for the Xpert assay, and 92.9% and 99.2% for the RidaGene assay, respectively. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences (p-value > 0.5) between the results of the Xpert and RidaGene Norovirus assays. We found that both assays are useful for the detection of noroviruses in clinical stool samples.


Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Antigen Test Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Xpert Assay Nucleic Acid Extraction Protocol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The work at Seinäjoki Central Hospital was part of the TUKE 5050 project and funded by TUKE (Research and Development Project of The Hospital District of South Ostrobothnia).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    Bruins MJ, Wolfhagen MJ, Schirm J, Ruijs GJ (2010) Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of norovirus in stool samples. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29(6):741–743. doi: 10.1007/s10096-010-0911-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schaub SA, Oshiro RK (2000) Public health concerns about caliciviruses as waterborne contaminants. J Infect Dis 181(Suppl 2):S374–S380. doi: 10.1086/315580 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Teunis PF, Moe CL, Liu P, Miller SE, Lindesmith L, Baric RS, Le Pendu J, Calderon RL (2008) Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? J Med Virol 80(8):1468–1476. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21237 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carter MJ (2005) Enterically infecting viruses: pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. J Appl Microbiol 98:1354–1380. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02635.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iturriza-Gómara M, Lopman B (2014) Norovirus in healthcare settings. Curr Opin Infect Dis 27(5):437–443. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000094 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bartsch SM, Lopman BA, Ozawa S, Hall AJ, Lee BY (2016) Global economic burden of norovirus gastroenteritis. PLoS One 11(4):e0151219. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151219 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rockx B, de Wit M, Vennema H, Vinjé J, de Bruin E, van Duynhoven Y, Koopmans M (2002) Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 35(3):246–253. doi: 10.1086/341408 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lopman BA, Reacher MH, Vipond IB, Sarangi J, Brown DW (2004) Clinical manifestation of norovirus gastroenteritis in health care settings. Clin Infect Dis 39(3):318–324. doi: 10.1086/421948 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duizer E, Bijkerk P, Rockx B, De Groot A, Twisk F, Koopmans M (2004) Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(8):4538–4543. doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.8.4538-4543.2004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patel MM, Hall AJ, Vinjé J, Parashar UD (2009) Noroviruses: a comprehensive review. J Clin Virol 44(1):1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2008.10.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robilotti E, Deresinski S, Pinsky BA (2015) Norovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev 28(1):134–164. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00075-14 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirby A, Gurgel RQ, Dove W, Vieira SCF, Cunliffe NA, Cuevas LE (2010) An evaluation of the RIDASCREEN and IDEIA enzyme immunoassays and the RIDAQUICK immunochromatographic test for the detection of norovirus in faecal specimens. J Clin Virol 49(4):254–257. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2010.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richards GP, Watson MA, Meade GK, Hovan GL, Kingsley DH (2012) Resilience of norovirus GII.4 to freezing and thawing: implications for virus infectivity. Food Environ Virol 4(4):192–197. doi: 10.1007/s12560-012-9089-6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gonzalez MD, Langley LC, Buchan BW, Faron ML, Maier M, Templeton K, Walker K, Popowitch EB, Miller MB, Rao A, Liebert UG, Ledeboer NA, Vinjé J, Burnham CAD (2016) Multicenter evaluation of the Xpert Norovirus assay for detection of norovirus genogroups I and II in fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 54(1):142–147. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02361-15 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rovida F, Premoli M, Campanini G, Sarasini A, Baldanti F (2016) Evaluation of Xpert® Norovirus assay performance in comparison with real-time RT-PCR in hospitalized adult patients with acute gastroenteritis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 85(4):426–427. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2016.05.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dunbar NL, Bruggink LD, Marshall JA (2014) Evaluation of the RIDAGENE real-time PCR assay for the detection of GI and GII norovirus. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 79(3):317–321. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.03.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vinjé J (2015) Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus. J Clin Microbiol 53(2):373–381. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01535-14 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ambert-Balay K, Pothier P (2013) Evaluation of 4 immunochromatographic tests for rapid detection of norovirus in faecal samples. J Clin Virol 56(3):194–198. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2012.11.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical MicrobiologySeinäjoki Central HospitalSeinäjokiFinland
  2. 2.Fimlab LaboratoriesTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations