Improved survival among ICU-hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia by unidentified organisms: a multicenter case–control study

  • J. RelloEmail author
  • E. Diaz
  • R. Mañez
  • J. Sole-Violan
  • J. Valles
  • L. Vidaur
  • R. Zaragoza
  • S. Gattarello
  • CAPUCI II Consortium
Original Article


A retrospective analysis from prospectively collected data was conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) at 33 hospitals in Europe comparing the trend in ICU survival among adults with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to unknown organisms from 2000 to 2015. The secondary objective was to establish whether changes in antibiotic policies were associated with different outcomes. ICU mortality decreased (p = 0.02) from 26.9 % in the first study period (2000–2002) to 15.7 % in the second period (2008–2015). Demographic data and clinical severity at admission were comparable between groups, except for age over 65 years and incidence of cardiomyopathy. Over time, patients received higher rates of combination therapy (94.3 vs. 77.2 %; p < 0.01) and early (<3 h) antibiotic delivery (72.9 vs. 50.3 %; p < 0.01); likewise, the 2008–2015 group was more likely to receive adequate antibiotic prescription [as defined by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines] than the 2000–2002 group (70.7 vs. 48.2 %; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed an independent association between decreased ICU mortality and early (<3 h) antibiotic administration [odds ratio (OR) 3.48 [1.70–7.15], p < 0.01] or adequate antibiotic prescription according to guidelines (OR 2.22 [1.11–4.43], p = 0.02). In conclusion, our findings suggest that ICU mortality in severe CAP due to unidentified organisms has decreased in the last 15 years. Several changes in management and better compliance with guidelines over time were associated with increased survival.


Intensive Care Unit Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Acute Kidney Injury Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Simplified Acute Physiology Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



CAPUCI II is a European Critical Care Research Network (ECCRN) project endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).

We thank the investigators Consortium “Community-Acquired Pneumonia en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos II study” for their dedication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Financial support

2014SGR0218, RED RESPIRA ISCIII (RTIC 03/11), FISS (PI 04/1500), and CIBERES (PCI Pneumonia).

Conflict of interest

Dr. Rello served as a consultant for Lasco and Paratek. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Rello
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • E. Diaz
    • 2
    • 3
  • R. Mañez
    • 4
  • J. Sole-Violan
    • 2
    • 5
  • J. Valles
    • 2
    • 6
  • L. Vidaur
    • 2
    • 7
  • R. Zaragoza
    • 8
  • S. Gattarello
    • 9
  • CAPUCI II Consortium
  1. 1.Universitat Autonoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.CIBERESBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Hospital Joan XXIIITarragonaSpain
  4. 4.Hospital de BellvitgeBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Hospital NegrinLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain
  6. 6.Hospital Parc TauliSabadellSpain
  7. 7.Hospital de DonostiaDonostiaSpain
  8. 8.Hospital PesetValenciaSpain
  9. 9.Toronto General HospitalTorontoCanada

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