Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care laboratory in Mumbai

  • M. Kazi
  • L. Drego
  • C. Nikam
  • K. Ajbani
  • R. Soman
  • A. Shetty
  • C. RodriguesEmail author


Carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases are increasingly reported worldwide, leading to therapeutic failure. In an era where the drug development pipeline is stagnant, it is crucial to preserve current classes of antibiotics to help fight against infection caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), by practicing a rational approach for the use of antibiotics. Identifying the mechanisms of resistance gives us much needed insights in this field. A total of 113 consecutive, non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates were collected from July to December 2012. These isolates were subjected to the modified Hodge test (MHT) for phenotypic detection of carbapenemases, an inhibitor-based test employing EDTA for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), and phenylboronic acid for the detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that characterized the five most predominant carbapenemases (bla NDM, bla OXA, bla VIM, bla IMP, bla KPC) was designed. The 113 isolates consisted of Klebsiella spp. (46), Enterobacter spp. (32), Escherichia coli (31), Citrobacter spp. (2), Proteus spp. (1), and Morganella spp. (1). bla NDM-1 was the most prevalent carbapenemase and accounted for 75.22 % (85/113) of the isolates. This was followed by bla OXA [4.42 % (n = 5)]. 18.5 % (21/113) of the isolates possessed dual carbapenemase genes. 98.9 % concordance was observed between the phenotypic tests and the molecular tests for the detection of MBL. In conclusion, patients infected with resistant bacteria require early appropriate antimicrobial treatment for good clinical outcome. Thus, identifying the resistant mechanisms of suspected pathogens becomes crucial. Also, the high incidence of plasmid-mediated bla NDM-1 calls for the implementation of strict infection control and contact isolation precautions in order to prevent the spread of these organisms.


Colistin Carbapenem Resistance Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase Modify Hodge Test Strict Infection Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Multidrug-resistant organism




Phenylboronic acid


Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute


Combined disk test



We thank Dr. Anand Manoharan, Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore for providing us with bla VIM- and bla IMP-positive controls, and Dr. Rajni Gaind, Consultant Microbiologist, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College (VMMC) and Associated Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi for providing us with the bla KPC-positive control.


The project was funded by the National Health and Education Society.

Conflict of interest

None to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kazi
    • 1
  • L. Drego
    • 1
  • C. Nikam
    • 1
  • K. Ajbani
    • 1
  • R. Soman
    • 1
  • A. Shetty
    • 1
  • C. Rodrigues
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyP.D. Hinduja Hospital & Medical Research CentreMahim (West), MumbaiIndia

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