Genetic diversity of OXA-51-like genes among multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

  • M. Aly
  • H. T. Tayeb
  • S. M. Al Johani
  • E. J. Alyamani
  • F. Aldughaishem
  • I. Alabdulkarim
  • H. H. BalkhyEmail author


We explore the genetic diversity of class D oxacillinases, including OXA-23, -24 (-40), -58 and, particularly, the intrinsic OXA-51-like genes, among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains from inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Sequence-based typing (SBT) of the OXA-51-like gene was carried out on 253 isolates. Selected isolates (n = 66) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing results showed that all isolates (n = 253) contained the OXA-51-like and OXA-23 genes. However, the OXA-58 gene was detected in five isolates. Further, none of the isolates had the OXA-40 (identical to the OXA-24) gene. SBT revealed a high OXA-51-like genotypic diversity and showed that all isolates were clustered into four main groups: OXA-66 (62.3 %), followed by OXA-69 (19.1 %), OXA-132 (7.6 %) and other OXA-51-like genes (10.3 %), including OXA-79, -82, -92, -131 and -197. MLST revealed four main sequence types (STs), 2, 19, 20 and 25, among the isolates, in addition to six isolates with newly designated ST194–ST197 singletons. Further, a high prevalence (81.4 %) of OXA-66 and OXA-69-like genes in A. baumannii was identified. More studies are essential in order to explore the molecular mechanisms that confer carbapenem-resistant phenotypes for A. baumannii isolates and to investigate the genetic diversity of other OXA-D genes.


Acinetobacter Baumannii Multilocus Sequence Typing Gulf Cooperation Council Carbapenem Resistance tnpA 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work has been supported by a grant from King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, grant number: ARP-28-112.

Conflict of interest

All authors confirm that there is no financial relationship with the organisation that sponsored the research. EJA however, is an employee of KACST.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Aly
    • 1
  • H. T. Tayeb
    • 2
  • S. M. Al Johani
    • 3
    • 4
  • E. J. Alyamani
    • 5
  • F. Aldughaishem
    • 4
  • I. Alabdulkarim
    • 1
  • H. H. Balkhy
    • 1
    • 3
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.King Abdullah International Medical Research CentreRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research CentreRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, WHO CC and GCC Center for Infection ControlRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of PathologyKing Abdulaziz Medical CityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.King Abdulaziz City for Science and TechnologyRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Infection Prevention and ControlKing Abdulaziz Medical CityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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