Advertisement

Autophagy is redundant for the host defense against systemic Candida albicans infections

  • S. P. Smeekens
  • R. K. Malireddi
  • T. S. Plantinga
  • K. Buffen
  • M. Oosting
  • L. A. B. Joosten
  • B. J. Kullberg
  • J. R. Perfect
  • W. K. Scott
  • F. L. van de Veerdonk
  • R. J. Xavier
  • E. van de Vosse
  • T.-D. Kanneganti
  • M. D. Johnson
  • M. G. NeteaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an important role in the immunity against intracellular pathogens, but very little is known about its role in the host defense against fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. Therefore, the role of autophagy for the host defense against C. albicans was assessed by complementary approaches using mice defective in autophagy, as well as immunological and genetic studies in humans. Although C. albicans induced LC3-II formation in macrophages, myeloid cell-specific ATG7−/− mice with defects in autophagy did not display an increased susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis. In in vitro experiments in human blood mononuclear cells, blocking autophagy modulated cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide, but not by C. albicans. Furthermore, autophagy modulation in human monocytes did not influence the phagocytosis and killing of C. albicans. Finally, 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 autophagy genes were not associated with susceptibility to candidemia or clinical outcome of disease in a large cohort of patients, and there was no correlation between these genetic variants and cytokine production in either candidemia patients or healthy controls. Based on these complementary in vitro and in vivo studies, it can be concluded that autophagy is redundant for the host response against systemic infections with C. albicans.

Keywords

Candidiasis Fungal Burden Systemic Candidiasis Autophagy Gene Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Mark van Boxtel for helping with the in vitro experiments and Dennis Kremer for the help with designing the Sequenom assays.

M.G.N. was supported by an ERC Consolidator Grant [310372]. T.S.P. was supported by a VENI grant from the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research. F.L.vdV. was supported by a VENI grant from the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Wisplinghoff H, Bischoff T, Tallent SM, Seifert H, Wenzel RP, Edmond MB (2004) Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin Infect Dis 39(3):309–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van de Veerdonk FL, Marijnissen RJ, Kullberg BJ, Koenen HJ, Cheng SC, Joosten I, van den Berg WB, Williams DL, van der Meer JW, Joosten LA, Netea MG (2009) The macrophage mannose receptor induces IL-17 in response to Candida albicans. Cell Host Microbe 5(4):329–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheng SC, van de Veerdonk FL, Lenardon M, Stoffels M, Plantinga T, Smeekens S, Rizzetto L, Mukaremera L, Preechasuth K, Cavalieri D, Kanneganti TD, van der Meer JW, Kullberg BJ, Joosten LA, Gow NA, Netea MG (2011) The dectin-1/inflammasome pathway is responsible for the induction of protective T-helper 17 responses that discriminate between yeasts and hyphae of Candida albicans. J Leukoc Biol 90(2):357–366PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Marshall AS, Gordon S (2003) Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. J Exp Med 197(9):1119–1124PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Appelmelk BJ, van Die I, van Vliet SJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Geijtenbeek TB, van Kooyk Y (2003) Cutting edge: carbohydrate profiling identifies new pathogens that interact with dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells. J Immunol 170(4):1635–1639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Villamón E, Gozalbo D, Roig P, O’Connor JE, Fradelizi D, Gil ML (2004) Toll-like receptor-2 is essential in murine defenses against Candida albicans infections. Microbes Infect 6(1):1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tada H, Nemoto E, Shimauchi H, Watanabe T, Mikami T, Matsumoto T, Ohno N, Tamura H, Shibata K, Akashi S, Miyake K, Sugawara S, Takada H (2002) Saccharomyces cerevisiae- and Candida albicans-derived mannan induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human monocytes in a CD14- and Toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner. Microbiol Immunol 46:503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heinsbroek SE, Taylor PR, Martinez FO, Martinez-Pomares L, Brown GD, Gordon S (2008) Stage-specific sampling by pattern recognition receptors during Candida albicans phagocytosis. PLoS Pathog 4(11):e1000218PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Netea MG, Brown GD, Kullberg BJ, Gow NA (2008) An integrated model of the recognition of Candida albicans by the innate immune system. Nat Rev Microbiol 6(1):67–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sanjuan MA, Dillon CP, Tait SW, Moshiach S, Dorsey F, Connell S, Komatsu M, Tanaka K, Cleveland JL, Withoff S, Green DR (2007) Toll-like receptor signalling in macrophages links the autophagy pathway to phagocytosis. Nature 450(7173):1253–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deretic V (2005) Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity. Trends Immunol 26(10):523–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deretic V (2009) Multiple regulatory and effector roles of autophagy in immunity. Curr Opin Immunol 21(1):53–62PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Virgin HW, Levine B (2009) Autophagy genes in immunity. Nat Immunol 10(5):461–470PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ashford TP, Porter KR (1962) Cytoplasmic components in hepatic cell lysosomes. J Cell Biol 12:198–202PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deretic V, Levine B (2009) Autophagy, immunity, and microbial adaptations. Cell Host Microbe 5(6):527–549PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McFarlane S, Aitken J, Sutherland JS, Nicholl MJ, Preston VG, Preston CM (2011) Early induction of autophagy in human fibroblasts after infection with human cytomegalovirus or herpes simplex virus 1. J Virol 85(9):4212–4221PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fabri M, Realegeno SE, Jo EK, Modlin RL (2011) Role of autophagy in the host response to microbial infection and potential for therapy. Curr Opin Immunol 23(1):65–70PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakagawa I, Amano A, Mizushima N, Yamamoto A, Yamaguchi H, Kamimoto T, Nara A, Funao J, Nakata M, Tsuda K, Hamada S, Yoshimori T (2004) Autophagy defends cells against invading group A Streptococcus. Science 306(5698):1037–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singh SB, Davis AS, Taylor GA, Deretic V (2006) Human IRGM induces autophagy to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria. Science 313(5792):1438–1441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao Z, Fux B, Goodwin M, Dunay IR, Strong D, Miller BC, Cadwell K, Delgado MA, Ponpuak M, Green KG, Schmidt RE, Mizushima N, Deretic V, Sibley LD, Virgin HW (2008) Autophagosome-independent essential function for the autophagy protein Atg5 in cellular immunity to intracellular pathogens. Cell Host Microbe 4(5):458–469PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lenz HD, Haller E, Melzer E, Kober K, Wurster K, Stahl M, Bassham DC, Vierstra RD, Parker JE, Bautor J, Molina A, Escudero V, Shindo T, van der Hoorn RA, Gust AA, Nürnberger T (2011) Autophagy differentially controls plant basal immunity to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Plant J 66(5):818–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xu Y, Jagannath C, Liu XD, Sharafkhaneh A, Kolodziejska KE, Eissa NT (2007) Toll-like receptor 4 is a sensor for autophagy associated with innate immunity. Immunity 27(1):135–144PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rosentul DC, Plantinga TS, Oosting M, Scott WK, Velez Edwards DR, Smith PB, Alexander BD, Yang JC, Laird GM, Joosten LA, van der Meer JW, Perfect JR, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG, Johnson MD (2011) Genetic variation in the dectin-1/CARD9 recognition pathway and susceptibility to candidemia. J Infect Dis 204(7):1138–1145PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vonk AG, Wieland CW, Netea MG, Kullberg BJ (2002) Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans blastoconidia by neutrophils and macrophages: a comparison of different microbiological test systems. J Microbiol Methods 49(1):55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kullberg BJ, van ’t Wout JW, Hoogstraten C, van Furth R (1993) Recombinant interferon-γ enhances resistance to acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in mice. J Infect Dis 168(2):436–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Netea MG, Gow NA, Munro CA, Bates S, Collins C, Ferwerda G, Hobson RP, Bertram G, Hughes HB, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Buurman ET, Gijzen K, Williams DL, Torensma R, McKinnon A, MacCallum DM, Odds FC, Van der Meer JW, Brown AJ, Kullberg BJ (2006) Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J Clin Invest 116(6):1642–1650PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huang J, Brumell JH (2009) NADPH oxidases contribute to autophagy regulation. Autophagy 5(6):887–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ma J, Becker C, Lowell CA, Underhill DM (2012) Dectin-1-triggered recruitment of light chain 3 protein to phagosomes facilitates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of fungal-derived antigens. J Biol Chem 287(41):34149–34156PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nicola AM, Albuquerque P, Martinez LR, Dal-Rosso RA, Saylor C, De Jesus M, Nosanchuk JD, Casadevall A (2012) Macrophage autophagy in immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. Infect Immun 80(9):3065–3076PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lai S-C, Devenish RJ (2012) LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP): connections with host autophagy. Cells 1(3):396–408PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mestas J, Hughes CC (2004) Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology. J Immunol 172(5):2731–2738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crişan TO, Plantinga TS, van de Veerdonk FL, Farcaş MF, Stoffels M, Kullberg BJ, van der Meer JW, Joosten LA, Netea MG (2011) Inflammasome-independent modulation of cytokine response by autophagy in human cells. PLoS One 6(4):e18666PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harris J, Hartman M, Roche C, Zeng SG, O’Shea A, Sharp FA, Lambe EM, Creagh EM, Golenbock DT, Tschopp J, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald KA, Lavelle EC (2011) Autophagy controls IL-1beta secretion by targeting pro-IL-1beta for degradation. J Biol Chem 286(11):9587–9597PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Plantinga TS, Crisan TO, Oosting M, van de Veerdonk FL, de Jong DJ, Philpott DJ, van der Meer JW, Girardin SE, Joosten LA, Netea MG (2011) Crohn’s disease-associated ATG16L1 polymorphism modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine responses selectively upon activation of NOD2. Gut 60(9):1229–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Bánhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC Jr, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Béchet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahová M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronjé MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, D’Amelio M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Davids LM, Davies FE, De Felici M, de Groot JF, de Haan CA, De Martino L, De Milito A, De Tata V, Debnath J, Degterev A, Dehay B, Delbridge LM, Demarchi F, Deng YZ, Dengjel J, Dent P, Denton D, Deretic V, Desai SD, Devenish RJ, Di Gioacchino M, Di Paolo G, Di Pietro C, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding WX, Distelhorst CW, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dokudovskaya S, Dong Z, Dorsey FC, Dosenko V, Dowling JJ, Doxsey S, Dreux M, Drew ME, Duan Q, Duchosal MA, Duff K, Dugail I, Durbeej M, Duszenko M, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Egea G, Eichinger L, Eissa NT, Ekmekcioglu S, El-Deiry WS, Elazar Z, Elgendy M, Ellerby LM, Eng KE, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Erenpreisa J, Escalante R, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Espina V, Fan H, Fan J, Fan QW, Fan Z, Fang S, Fang Y, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Farré JC, Faure M, Fechheimer M, Feng CG, Feng J, Feng Q, Feng Y, Fésüs L, Feuer R, Figueiredo-Pereira ME, Fimia GM, Fingar DC, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Finley KD, Fiorito F, Fisher EA, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Florez-McClure ML, Florio S, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fotedar R, Fowler DH, Fox HS, Franco R, Frankel LB, Fransen M, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujii J, Fujisaki K, Fujita E, Fukuda M, Furukawa RH, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galliot B, Galy V, Ganesh S, Ganetzky B, Ganley IG, Gao FB, Gao GF, Gao J, Garcia L, Garcia-Manero G, Garcia-Marcos M, Garmyn M, Gartel AL, Gatti E, Gautel M, Gawriluk TR, Gegg ME, Geng J, Germain M, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, Ghosh P, Giammarioli AM, Giatromanolaki AN, Gibson SB, Gilkerson RW, Ginger ML, Ginsberg HN, Golab J, Goligorsky MS, Golstein P, Gomez-Manzano C, Goncu E, Gongora C, Gonzalez CD, Gonzalez R, González-Estévez C, González-Polo RA, Gonzalez-Rey E, Gorbunov NV, Gorski S, Goruppi S, Gottlieb RA, Gozuacik D, Granato GE, Grant GD, Green KN, Gregorc A, Gros F, Grose C, Grunt TW, Gual P, Guan JL, Guan KL, Guichard SM, Gukovskaya AS, Gukovsky I, Gunst J, Gustafsson AB, Halayko AJ, Hale AN, Halonen SK, Hamasaki M, Han F, Han T, Hancock MK, Hansen M, Harada H, Harada M, Hardt SE, Harper JW, Harris AL, Harris J, Harris SD, Hashimoto M, Haspel JA, Hayashi S, Hazelhurst LA, He C, He YW, Hébert MJ, Heidenreich KA, Helfrich MH, Helgason GV, Henske EP, Herman B, Herman PK, Hetz C, Hilfiker S, Hill JA, Hocking LJ, Hofman P, Hofmann TG, Höhfeld J, Holyoake TL, Hong MH, Hood DA, Hotamisligil GS, Houwerzijl EJ, Høyer-Hansen M, Hu B, Hu CA, Hu HM, Hua Y, Huang C, Huang J, Huang S, Huang WP, Huber TB, Huh WK, Hung TH, Hupp TR, Hur GM, Hurley JB, Hussain SN, Hussey PJ, Hwang JJ, Hwang S, Ichihara A, Ilkhanizadeh S, Inoki K, Into T, Iovane V, Iovanna JL, Ip NY, Isaka Y, Ishida H, Isidoro C, Isobe K, Iwasaki A, Izquierdo M, Izumi Y, Jaakkola PM, Jäättelä M, Jackson GR, Jackson WT, Janji B, Jendrach M, Jeon JH, Jeung EB, Jiang H, Jiang H, Jiang JX, Jiang M, Jiang Q, Jiang X, Jiang X, Jiménez A, Jin M, Jin S, Joe CO, Johansen T, Johnson DE, Johnson GV, Jones NL, Joseph B, Joseph SK, Joubert AM, Juhász G, Juillerat-Jeanneret L, Jung CH, Jung YK, Kaarniranta K, Kaasik A, Kabuta T, Kadowaki M, Kagedal K, Kamada Y, Kaminskyy VO, Kampinga HH, Kanamori H, Kang C, Kang KB, Kang KI, Kang R, Kang YA, Kanki T, Kanneganti TD, Kanno H, Kanthasamy AG, Kanthasamy A, Karantza V, Kaushal GP, Kaushik S, Kawazoe Y, Ke PY, Kehrl JH, Kelekar A, Kerkhoff C, Kessel DH, Khalil H, Kiel JA, Kiger AA, Kihara A, Kim DR, Kim DH, Kim DH, Kim EK, Kim HR, Kim JS, Kim JH, Kim JC, Kim JK, Kim PK, Kim SW, Kim YS, Kim Y, Kimchi A, Kimmelman AC, King JS, Kinsella TJ, Kirkin V, Kirshenbaum LA, Kitamoto K, Kitazato K, Klein L, Klimecki WT, Klucken J, Knecht E, Ko BC, Koch JC, Koga H, Koh JY, Koh YH, Koike M, Komatsu M, Kominami E, Kong HJ, Kong WJ, Korolchuk VI, Kotake Y, Koukourakis MI, Kouri Flores JB, Kovács AL, Kraft C, Krainc D, Krämer H, Kretz-Remy C, Krichevsky AM, Kroemer G, Krüger R, Krut O, Ktistakis NT, Kuan CY, Kucharczyk R, Kumar A, Kumar R, Kumar S, Kundu M, Kung HJ, Kurz T, Kwon HJ, La Spada AR, Lafont F, Lamark T, Landry J, Lane JD, Lapaquette P, Laporte JF, László L, Lavandero S, Lavoie JN, Layfield R, Lazo PA, Le W, Le Cam L, Ledbetter DJ, Lee AJ, Lee BW, Lee GM, Lee J, Lee JH, Lee M, Lee MS, Lee SH, Leeuwenburgh C, Legembre P, Legouis R, Lehmann M, Lei HY, Lei QY, Leib DA, Leiro J, Lemasters JJ, Lemoine A, Lesniak MS, Lev D, Levenson VV, Levine B, Levy E, Li F, Li JL, Li L, Li S, Li W, Li XJ, Li YB, Li YP, Liang C, Liang Q, Liao YF, Liberski PP, Lieberman A, Lim HJ, Lim KL, Lim K, Lin CF, Lin FC, Lin J, Lin JD, Lin K, Lin WW, Lin WC, Lin YL, Linden R, Lingor P, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Lisanti MP, Liton PB, Liu B, Liu CF, Liu K, Liu L, Liu QA, Liu W, Liu YC, Liu Y, Lockshin RA, Lok CN, Lonial S, Loos B, Lopez-Berestein G, López-Otín C, Lossi L, Lotze MT, Lőw P, Lu B, Lu B, Lu B, Lu Z, Luciano F, Lukacs NW, Lund AH, Lynch-Day MA, Ma Y, Macian F, MacKeigan JP, Macleod KF, Madeo F, Maiuri L, Maiuri MC, Malagoli D, Malicdan MC, Malorni W, Man N, Mandelkow EM, Manon S, Manov I, Mao K, Mao X, Mao Z, Marambaud P, Marazziti D, Marcel YL, Marchbank K, Marchetti P, Marciniak SJ, Marcondes M, Mardi M, Marfe G, Mariño G, Markaki M, Marten MR, Martin SJ, Martinand-Mari C, Martinet W, Martinez-Vicente M, Masini M, Matarrese P, Matsuo S, Matteoni R, Mayer A, Mazure NM, McConkey DJ, McConnell MJ, McDermott C, McDonald C, McInerney GM, McKenna SL, McLaughlin B, McLean PJ, McMaster CR, McQuibban GA, Meijer AJ, Meisler MH, Meléndez A, Melia TJ, Melino G, Mena MA, Menendez JA, Menna-Barreto RF, Menon MB, Menzies FM, Mercer CA, Merighi A, Merry DE, Meschini S, Meyer CG, Meyer TF, Miao CY, Miao JY, Michels PA, Michiels C, Mijaljica D, Milojkovic A, Minucci S, Miracco C, Miranti CK, Mitroulis I, Miyazawa K, Mizushima N, Mograbi B, Mohseni S, Molero X, Mollereau B, Mollinedo F, Momoi T, Monastyrska I, Monick MM, Monteiro MJ, Moore MN, Mora R, Moreau K, Moreira PI, Moriyasu Y, Moscat J, Mostowy S, Mottram JC, Motyl T, Moussa CE, Müller S, Muller S, Münger K, Münz C, Murphy LO, Murphy ME, Musarò A, Mysorekar I, Nagata E, Nagata K, Nahimana A, Nair U, Nakagawa T, Nakahira K, Nakano H, Nakatogawa H, Nanjundan M, Naqvi NI, Narendra DP, Narita M, Navarro M, Nawrocki ST, Nazarko TY, Nemchenko A, Netea MG, Neufeld TP, Ney PA, Nezis IP, Nguyen HP, Nie D, Nishino I, Nislow C, Nixon RA, Noda T, Noegel AA, Nogalska A, Noguchi S, Notterpek L, Novak I, Nozaki T, Nukina N, Nürnberger T, Nyfeler B, Obara K, Oberley TD, Oddo S, Ogawa M, Ohashi T, Okamoto K, Oleinick NL, Oliver FJ, Olsen LJ, Olsson S, Opota O, Osborne TF, Ostrander GK, Otsu K, Ou JH, Ouimet M, Overholtzer M, Ozpolat B, Paganetti P, Pagnini U, Pallet N, Palmer GE, Palumbo C, Pan T, Panaretakis T, Pandey UB, Papackova Z, Papassideri I, Paris I, Park J, Park OK, Parys JB, Parzych KR, Patschan S, Patterson C, Pattingre S, Pawelek JM, Peng J, Perlmutter DH, Perrotta I, Perry G, Pervaiz S, Peter M, Peters GJ, Petersen M, Petrovski G, Phang JM, Piacentini M, Pierre P, Pierrefite-Carle V, Pierron G, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Piras A, Piri N, Platanias LC, Pöggeler S, Poirot M, Poletti A, Poüs C, Pozuelo-Rubio M, Prætorius-Ibba M, Prasad A, Prescott M, Priault M, Produit-Zengaffinen N, Progulske-Fox A, Proikas-Cezanne T, Przedborski S, Przyklenk K, Puertollano R, Puyal J, Qian SB, Qin L, Qin ZH, Quaggin SE, Raben N, Rabinowich H, Rabkin SW, Rahman I, Rami A, Ramm G, Randall G, Randow F, Rao VA, Rathmell JC, Ravikumar B, Ray SK, Reed BH, Reed JC, Reggiori F, Régnier-Vigouroux A, Reichert AS, Reiners JJ Jr, Reiter RJ, Ren J, Revuelta JL, Rhodes CJ, Ritis K, Rizzo E, Robbins J, Roberge M, Roca H, Roccheri MC, Rocchi S, Rodemann HP, Rodríguez de Córdoba S, Rohrer B, Roninson IB, Rosen K, Rost-Roszkowska MM, Rouis M, Rouschop KM, Rovetta F, Rubin BP, Rubinsztein DC, Ruckdeschel K, Rucker EB 3rd, Rudich A, Rudolf E, Ruiz-Opazo N, Russo R, Rusten TE, Ryan KM, Ryter SW, Sabatini DM, Sadoshima J, Saha T, Saitoh T, Sakagami H, Sakai Y, Salekdeh GH, Salomoni P, Salvaterra PM, Salvesen G, Salvioli R, Sanchez AM, Sánchez-Alcázar JA, Sánchez-Prieto R, Sandri M, Sankar U, Sansanwal P, Santambrogio L, Saran S, Sarkar S, Sarwal M, Sasakawa C, Sasnauskiene A, Sass M, Sato K, Sato M, Schapira AH, Scharl M, Schätzl HM, Scheper W, Schiaffino S, Schneider C, Schneider ME, Schneider-Stock R, Schoenlein PV, Schorderet DF, Schüller C, Schwartz GK, Scorrano L, Sealy L, Seglen PO, Segura-Aguilar J, Seiliez I, Seleverstov O, Sell C, Seo JB, Separovic D, Setaluri V, Setoguchi T, Settembre C, Shacka JJ, Shanmugam M, Shapiro IM, Shaulian E, Shaw RJ, Shelhamer JH, Shen HM, Shen WC, Sheng ZH, Shi Y, Shibuya K, Shidoji Y, Shieh JJ, Shih CM, Shimada Y, Shimizu S, Shintani T, Shirihai OS, Shore GC, Sibirny AA, Sidhu SB, Sikorska B, Silva-Zacarin EC, Simmons A, Simon AK, Simon HU, Simone C, Simonsen A, Sinclair DA, Singh R, Sinha D, Sinicrope FA, Sirko A, Siu PM, Sivridis E, Skop V, Skulachev VP, Slack RS, Smaili SS, Smith DR, Soengas MS, Soldati T, Song X, Sood AK, Soong TW, Sotgia F, Spector SA, Spies CD, Springer W, Srinivasula SM, Stefanis L, Steffan JS, Stendel R, Stenmark H, Stephanou A, Stern ST, Sternberg C, Stork B, Strålfors P, Subauste CS, Sui X, Sulzer D, Sun J, Sun SY, Sun ZJ, Sung JJ, Suzuki K, Suzuki T, Swanson MS, Swanton C, Sweeney ST, Sy LK, Szabadkai G, Tabas I, Taegtmeyer H, Tafani M, Takács-Vellai K, Takano Y, Takegawa K, Takemura G, Takeshita F, Talbot NJ, Tan KS, Tanaka K, Tanaka K, Tang D, Tang D, Tanida I, Tannous BA, Tavernarakis N, Taylor GS, Taylor GA, Taylor JP, Terada LS, Terman A, Tettamanti G, Thevissen K, Thompson CB, Thorburn A, Thumm M, Tian F, Tian Y, Tocchini-Valentini G, Tolkovsky AM, Tomino Y, Tönges L, Tooze SA, Tournier C, Tower J, Towns R, Trajkovic V, Travassos LH, Tsai TF, Tschan MP, Tsubata T, Tsung A, Turk B, Turner LS, Tyagi SC, Uchiyama Y, Ueno T, Umekawa M, Umemiya-Shirafuji R, Unni VK, Vaccaro MI, Valente EM, Van den Berghe G, van der Klei IJ, van Doorn W, van Dyk LF, van Egmond M, van Grunsven LA, Vandenabeele P, Vandenberghe WP, Vanhorebeek I, Vaquero EC, Velasco G, Vellai T, Vicencio JM, Vierstra RD, Vila M, Vindis C, Viola G, Viscomi MT, Voitsekhovskaja OV, von Haefen C, Votruba M, Wada K, Wade-Martins R, Walker CL, Walsh CM, Walter J, Wan XB, Wang A, Wang C, Wang D, Wang F, Wang F, Wang G, Wang H, Wang HG, Wang HD, Wang J, Wang K, Wang M, Wang RC, Wang X, Wang X, Wang YJ, Wang Y, Wang Z, Wang ZC, Wang Z, Wansink DG, Ward DM, Watada H, Waters SL, Webster P, Wei L, Weihl CC, Weiss WA, Welford SM, Wen LP, Whitehouse CA, Whitton JL, Whitworth AJ, Wileman T, Wiley JW, Wilkinson S, Willbold D, Williams RL, Williamson PR, Wouters BG, Wu C, Wu DC, Wu WK, Wyttenbach A, Xavier RJ, Xi Z, Xia P, Xiao G, Xie Z, Xie Z, Xu DZ, Xu J, Xu L, Xu X, Yamamoto A, Yamamoto A, Yamashina S, Yamashita M, Yan X, Yanagida M, Yang DS, Yang E, Yang JM, Yang SY, Yang W, Yang WY, Yang Z, Yao MC, Yao TP, Yeganeh B, Yen WL, Yin JJ, Yin XM, Yoo OJ, Yoon G, Yoon SY, Yorimitsu T, Yoshikawa Y, Yoshimori T, Yoshimoto K, You HJ, Youle RJ, Younes A, Yu L, Yu L, Yu SW, Yu WH, Yuan ZM, Yue Z, Yun CH, Yuzaki M, Zabirnyk O, Silva-Zacarin E, Zacks D, Zacksenhaus E, Zaffaroni N, Zakeri Z, Zeh HJ 3rd, Zeitlin SO, Zhang H, Zhang HL, Zhang J, Zhang JP, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang MY, Zhang XD, Zhao M, Zhao YF, Zhao Y, Zhao ZJ, Zheng X, Zhivotovsky B, Zhong Q, Zhou CZ, Zhu C, Zhu WG, Zhu XF, Zhu X, Zhu Y, Zoladek T, Zong WX, Zorzano A, Zschocke J, Zuckerbraun B (2012) Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy 8(4):445–544Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Noda T, Kageyama S, Fujita N, Yoshimori T (2012) Three-axis model for Atg recruitment in autophagy against Salmonella. Int J Cell Biol 2012:389562PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moon CM, Shin DJ, Kim SW, Son NH, Park A, Park B, Jung ES, Kim ES, Hong SP, Kim TI, Kim WH, Cheon JH (2013) Associations between genetic variants in the IRGM gene and inflammatory bowel diseases in the Korean population. Inflamm Bowel Dis 19(1):106–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Diekema DJ, Messer SA, Brueggemann AB, Coffman SL, Doern GV, Herwaldt LA, Pfaller MA (2002) Epidemiology of candidemia: 3-year results from the emerging infections and the epidemiology of Iowa organisms study. J Clin Microbiol 40(4):1298–1302PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang H, Chow S-C (2007) Sample size calculation for comparing proportions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Published Online: 14 Dec 2007. doi: 10.1002/9780471462422.eoct005
  40. 40.
    Plantinga TS, Johnson MD, Scott WK, van de Vosse E, Velez Edwards DR, Smith PB, Alexander BD, Yang JC, Kremer D, Laird GM, Oosting M, Joosten LA, van der Meer JW, van Dissel JT, Walsh TJ, Perfect JR, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG (2012) Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphisms increase susceptibility to candidemia. J Infect Dis 205(6):934–943PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnson MD, Plantinga TS, van de Vosse E, Velez Edwards DR, Smith PB, Alexander BD, Yang JC, Kremer D, Laird GM, Oosting M, Joosten LA, van der Meer JW, van Dissel JT, Walsh TJ, Perfect JR, Kullberg BJ, Scott WK, Netea MG (2012) Cytokine gene polymorphisms and the outcome of invasive candidiasis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 54(4):502–510PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fernández-Arenas E, Bleck CK, Nombela C, Gil C, Griffiths G, Diez-Orejas R (2009) Candida albicans actively modulates intracellular membrane trafficking in mouse macrophage phagosomes. Cell Microbiol 11(4):560–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eskelinen EL (2006) Roles of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. Mol Aspects Med 27(5–6):495–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brown GD, Gordon S (2001) Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans. Nature 413(6851):36–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brown GD, Taylor PR, Reid DM, Willment JA, Williams DL, Martinez-Pomares L, Wong SY, Gordon S (2002) Dectin-1 is a major beta-glucan receptor on macrophages. J Exp Med 196(3):407–412PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ferwerda B, Ferwerda G, Plantinga TS, Willment JA, van Spriel AB, Venselaar H, Elbers CC, Johnson MD, Cambi A, Huysamen C, Jacobs L, Jansen T, Verheijen K, Masthoff L, Morré SA, Vriend G, Williams DL, Perfect JR, Joosten LA, Wijmenga C, van der Meer JW, Adema GJ, Kullberg BJ, Brown GD, Netea MG (2009) Human dectin-1 deficiency and mucocutaneous fungal infections. N Engl J Med 361(18):1760–1767PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Plantinga TS, van der Velden WJ, Ferwerda B, van Spriel AB, Adema G, Feuth T, Donnelly JP, Brown GD, Kullberg BJ, Blijlevens NM, Netea MG (2009) Early stop polymorphism in human DECTIN-1 is associated with increased candida colonization in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 49(5):724–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yang CS, Rodgers M, Min CK, Lee JS, Kingeter L, Lee JY, Jong A, Kramnik I, Lin X, Jung JU (2012) The autophagy regulator Rubicon is a feedback inhibitor of CARD9-mediated host innate immunity. Cell Host Microbe 11(3):277–289PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    van de Veerdonk FL, Plantinga TS, Hoischen A, Smeekens SP, Joosten LA, Gilissen C, Arts P, Rosentul DC, Carmichael AJ, Smits-van der Graaf CA, Kullberg BJ, van der Meer JW, Lilic D, Veltman JA, Netea MG (2011) STAT1 mutations in autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. N Engl J Med 365(1):54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu L, Okada S, Kong XF, Kreins AY, Cypowyj S, Abhyankar A, Toubiana J, Itan Y, Audry M, Nitschke P, Masson C, Toth B, Flatot J, Migaud M, Chrabieh M, Kochetkov T, Bolze A, Borghesi A, Toulon A, Hiller J, Eyerich S, Eyerich K, Gulácsy V, Chernyshova L, Chernyshov V, Bondarenko A, Grimaldo RM, Blancas-Galicia L, Beas IM, Roesler J, Magdorf K, Engelhard D, Thumerelle C, Burgel PR, Hoernes M, Drexel B, Seger R, Kusuma T, Jansson AF, Sawalle-Belohradsky J, Belohradsky B, Jouanguy E, Bustamante J, Bué M, Karin N, Wildbaum G, Bodemer C, Lortholary O, Fischer A, Blanche S, Al-Muhsen S, Reichenbach J, Kobayashi M, Rosales FE, Lozano CT, Kilic SS, Oleastro M, Etzioni A, Traidl-Hoffmann C, Renner ED, Abel L, Picard C, Maródi L, Boisson-Dupuis S, Puel A, Casanova JL (2011) Gain-of-function human STAT1 mutations impair IL-17 immunity and underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. J Exp Med 208(8):1635–1648PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Milner JD, Brenchley JM, Laurence A, Freeman AF, Hill BJ, Elias KM, Kanno Y, Spalding C, Elloumi HZ, Paulson ML, Davis J, Hsu A, Asher AI, O’Shea J, Holland SM, Paul WE, Douek DC (2008) Impaired T(H)17 cell differentiation in subjects with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome. Nature 452(7188):773–776PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. P. Smeekens
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. K. Malireddi
    • 3
  • T. S. Plantinga
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Buffen
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Oosting
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. A. B. Joosten
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. J. Kullberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. R. Perfect
    • 4
  • W. K. Scott
    • 6
  • F. L. van de Veerdonk
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. J. Xavier
    • 7
    • 8
  • E. van de Vosse
    • 9
  • T.-D. Kanneganti
    • 3
  • M. D. Johnson
    • 4
    • 5
  • M. G. Netea
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MedicineRadboud university medical centerNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (N4i)NijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  4. 4.Division of Infectious Diseases and International HealthDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  5. 5.Campbell University College of Pharmacy and Health SciencesDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Dr. John T. Macdonald Foundation Department of Human Genetics and John P. Hussman Institute for Human GenomicsUniversity of Miami, Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  7. 7.The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  8. 8.Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  9. 9.Department of Infectious DiseasesLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations