Rhinovirus infections in western Sweden: a four-year molecular epidemiology study comparing local and globally appearing types

  • M. Sansone
  • M. Andersson
  • R. Brittain-Long
  • L.-M. Andersson
  • S. Olofsson
  • J. Westin
  • M. LindhEmail author


Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a highly prevalent pathogen and a major cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). HRV express less seasonality than other viral ARTIs, which typically appear as seasonal epidemics lasting for 1–2 months. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal patterns of HRV types over four consecutive years in one geographic region. HRV identified in respiratory samples from 114 patients over a four-year period were analysed by VP4/VP2 sequencing. HRV-A was found in 64, HRV-B in 11 and HRV-C in 37 cases. Overall, 33 different HRV-A types, nine B types and 21 C types were found. As many as 21 of the HRV types appeared during several seasons, with a maximum time-span of four years. Some types appeared during successive seasons and, in some cases, phylogenetic analysis indicated extended periods of circulation locally. Most of the strains were closely related to HRV identified in other parts of the world during the same time period. HRV strains that circulate locally represent many types and seem to reflect that HRV infections are highly globalised. The existence of simultaneous or successive epidemics with different HRV types in combination with the ability of each type to remain in the local population over extended periods of time may contribute to explaining the high rate of HRV infections.


Influenza Respiratory Syncytial Virus Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Minor Groove Binding Probe Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was funded by the Region Västra Götaland Research Funds (VGFOUREG-82811, ALFGBG-217671).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Sansone
    • 1
  • M. Andersson
    • 1
  • R. Brittain-Long
    • 2
  • L.-M. Andersson
    • 1
  • S. Olofsson
    • 1
  • J. Westin
    • 1
  • M. Lindh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska AcademyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Acute Medical Assessment UnitAberdeen Royal InfirmaryAberdeenUK

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