Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: determinants for severe disease

  • J. M. Wenisch
  • D. Schmid
  • H.-W. Kuo
  • E. Simons
  • F. Allerberger
  • V. Michl
  • P. Tesik
  • G. Tucek
  • C. Wenisch
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10096-011-1522-5

Cite this article as:
Wenisch, J.M., Schmid, D., Kuo, HW. et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis (2012) 31: 1923. doi:10.1007/s10096-011-1522-5

Abstract

Risk factors of severity (need for surgical intervention, intensive care or fatal outcome) were analysed in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a 777-bed community hospital. In a prospective analytical cross-sectional study, age (≥65 years), sex, CDI characteristics, underlying diseases, severity of comorbidity and PCR ribotypes were tested for associations with severe CDI. In total, 133 cases of hospital-acquired CDI (mean age 74.4 years) were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 5.7/10,000 hospital-days. A recurrent episode of diarrhoea occurred in 25 cases (18.8%) and complications including toxic megacolon, dehydration and septicaemia in 69 cases (51.9%). Four cases (3.0%) required ICU admission, one case (0.8%) surgical intervention and 22 cases (16.5%) died within the 30-day follow-up period. Variables identified to be independently associated with severe CDI were severe diarrhoea (odds ratio [OR] 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–11.11, p = 0.02), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.08–8.40, p = 0.04), chronic renal disease (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.07–7.81, p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.57–11.76, p = 0.004). The case fatality of 16.5% underlines the importance of increased efforts in CDI prevention, in particular for patients with underlying diseases.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Wenisch
    • 1
  • D. Schmid
    • 2
  • H.-W. Kuo
    • 2
  • E. Simons
    • 2
  • F. Allerberger
    • 2
    • 3
  • V. Michl
    • 4
  • P. Tesik
    • 4
  • G. Tucek
    • 5
  • C. Wenisch
    • 4
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical MedicineMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Infectious Disease EpidemiologyAustrian Agency for Health and Food SafetyViennaAustria
  3. 3.Institute of Medical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and HygieneParacelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  4. 4.Fourth Medical Department with Infectious Diseases and Tropical MedicineKaiser Franz Josef HospitalViennaAustria
  5. 5.Institute of Pathology and MicrobiologyKaiser Franz Josef HospitalViennaAustria
  6. 6.4. Medizinische Abteilung mit Infektions und TropenmedizinSMZ-Süd-Kaiser Franz Josef SpitalWienAustria

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