Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in urine. A review of the literature
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The detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine, a specimen easily obtained by a non-invasive self-sampling method, has been the subject of a considerable number of studies. This review provides an overview of 41 published studies; assesses how different methods and settings may contribute to the sometimes contradictory outcomes; and discusses the potential relevance of using urine samples in vaccine trials, disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and specific settings of cervical cancer screening. Urine sampling, storage conditions, sample preparation, DNA extraction, and DNA amplification may all have an important impact on HPV DNA detection and the form of viral DNA that is detected. Possible trends in HPV DNA prevalence in urine could be inferred from the presence of risk factors or the diagnosis of cervical lesions. HPV DNA detection in urine is feasible and may become a useful tool but necessitates further improvement and standardization.
KeywordsPolymerase Chain Reaction Inhibitor Cervical Cancer Screening Program Viral Episome Polymerase Chain Reaction Setting Abnormal Cervical Cytology Result
This work was financially supported by the Industrial Research Fund (with the participation of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) of the University of Antwerp (IOF/SBO 3501/3494). The funding sources had no role in the study design, collection of data, analysis, and interpretation of the data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Conflicts of interest
Pierre van Damme is the promoter, and Margareta Ieven and Johannes Bogers are the co-promoters of this research project, for which the University obtains a 10% financial contribution from GSK Biologicals. Alex Vorsters, Isabel Micalessi, and Joke Bilcke have no conflicts of interest.
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