Changing etiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a nationwide multicenter study in Korea
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Epidemiologic data on the etiologic organisms is important for appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment of bacterial meningitis. We identified the etiologies of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in Korean adults and the associated epidemiological factors. A retrospective, multicenter nationwide study was carried out. Patients 18 years of age or older with community-acquired bacterial meningitis with a confirmed pathogen were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected. One hundred and ninety-five cases were collected. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen (50.8%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7%), Listeria monocytogenes (6.7%), and group B Streptococcus (3.1%). The penicillin resistance rate of the S. pneumoniae was 60.3%; 40.0% of the organisms were not susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. The combination of third-generation cephalosporin with vancomycin was used in 76.3% of cases. Steroids were given before or with the first dose of antibiotics in 37.4% of patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 20.5% and neurological sequelae developed in 15.6% of cases. S. pneumoniae was the most common organism identified in community-acquired bacterial meningitis among Korean adults. S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, L. monocytogenes, and group B Streptococcus were also common. S. pneumoniae had high rates of resistance to penicillin and third-generation cephalosporins.
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