Antifungal properties of Salvadora persica and Juglans regia L. extracts against oral Candida strains

  • E. Noumi
  • M. Snoussi
  • H. Hajlaoui
  • E. Valentin
  • A. Bakhrouf


We report in this work, and for the first time, the potent antifungal activities of Salvadora persica and Juglans regia L. on different Candida species. Methanol, ethyl acetate, and diluted acetone extracts of S. persica (fresh and dry plant) and J. regia L. were screened for in vitro activity against some Candida species. These plants were selected due to their traditional use for the treatment of oral infections. Plant preparations were screened for antifungal activity using a standard agar disc diffusion assay. Following study of the antifungal activity of plant extracts, their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were determined using broth microdilution assay. Among S. persica and J. regia L. extracts, ethyl acetate J. regia L. extract had potent antifungal activity against all Candida strains. The MIC values of the J. regia L. against Candida strains ranged from 0.006 to 0.195 mg/ml. Two C. albicans strains showed a high MIC value (3.125 mg/ml). These results indicate that extracts can contain compounds with therapeutic potential against Candida strains and, hence, their possible use as therapeutic agents.


  1. 1.
    Chong PP, Abdul Hadi SR, Lee YL et al (2007) Genotyping and drug resistance profile of Candida spp. In recurrent and one-off vaginitis, and high association of non-albicans species with non-pregnant status. Infect Genet Evol 7:449–456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haberland-Carrodeguas C, Allen CM, Beck FM et al (2002) Prevalence of fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans in otherwise healthy outpatients. J Oral Pathol Med 31:99–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lachoria R, Jain PC, Agrawal SC (1999) Activity of some plant extracts against dermatophytes. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 41:17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chaieb K, Zmantar T, Ksouri R et al (2007) Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species. Mycoses 50:403–406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark AM, Jurgens TM, Hufford CD (1990) Antimicrobial activity of juglone. Phytother Res 4:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Darout IA, Christy AA, Skaug N et al (2000) Identification and quantification of some potentially antimicrobial anionic components in miswak extract. Ind J Pharmacol 32:11–14Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Runyoro DKB, Matee MIN, Ngassapa OD et al (2006) Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity. BMC Complement Altern Med 6:11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hajlaoui H, Snoussi M, Ben Jannet H et al (2008) Comparison of chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia essential oil from two Tunisian localities (Gabes and Sidi Bouzid). Ann Microbiol 58(3):513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Al Sadhan RI, Almas K (1999) Miswak (chewing stick): a cultural and scientific heritage. Saudi Dent J 11:80–87Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al-Bayati FA, Sulaiman KD (2008) In vitro antimicrobial activity of Salvadora persica L. extracts against some isolated oral pathogens in Iraq. Turk J Biol 32:57–62Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alkhawajah AM (1997) Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Juglans regia. Am J Chin Med 25:175–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Almas K (2002) The effect of Salvadora persica extract (miswak) and chlorhexidine gluconate on human dentin: a SEM study. J Contemp Dent Pract 3:27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Almas K, Al Bagieh NH, Akpata ES (1997) In vitro antimicrobial effects of extracts of freshly cut and 1-month-old miswak (chewing stick). Biomed Lett 56:145–149Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Almas K, Al-Lafi TR (1995) The natural toothbrush. World Health Forum 16:206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Almas K, Skaug N, Ahmad I (2005) An in vitro antimicrobial comparison of miswak extract with commercially available non-alcohol mouthrinses. Int J Dent Hyg 3:18–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Attar ZA (1979) The Miswak, nature’s toothbrush. Bull Hist Dent 27:39–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruneton J (1993) Pharmacogosie, phytochimie, plantes médicinales. Technique & Documentation, Lavoisier, Paris, p 348Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Farooqi MIH, Srivastava JG (1968) The toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica). Q J Crude Drug Res 8:1297–1299Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Girzu M, Carnat A, Privat AM et al (1998) Sedative effect of walnut leaf extract and juglone, an isolated constituent. Pharm Biol 36:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hattab FN (1997) Miswak: the natural toothbrush. J Clin Dent 8:125–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Okemo PO, Mwatha WE, Chhabra SC et al (2001) The kill kinetics of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Afr J Sci Technol 2:113–118Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pereira JA, Oliveira I, Sousa A et al (2007) Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol 45:2287–2295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saeed A (1988) Salvadora persica, Linn. (siwak)—its position and heritage in Islamic dentistry. Hamdard Med 31:75–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salehi P, Momeni Danaie Sh (2006) Comparison of the antibacterial effects of persica mouthwash with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans in orthodontic patients. DARU 14:178–182Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Valnet J (1992) La phytothérapie: traitement des maladies par les plantes. Maloine, Paris, pp 476–478Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wichtl M, Anton R (1999) Plantes thérapeutiques. Technique & Documentation, Paris, pp 291–293Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Al Bagieh NH, Almas K (1997) In vitro antibacterial effects of aqueous and alcohol extracts of miswak (chewing sticks). Cairo Dent J 13:221–224Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu CD, Darout IA, Skaug N (2001) Chewing sticks: timeless natural toothbrushes for oral cleansing. J Periodontal Res 36:275–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    AbdELRahman HF, Skaug N, Whyatt A et al (2003) Volatile compounds in crude Salvadora persica extracts. Pharm Biol 41:399–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Noumi
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Snoussi
    • 1
    • 3
  • H. Hajlaoui
    • 1
  • E. Valentin
    • 2
  • A. Bakhrouf
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Analyse, Traitement et Valorisation des Polluants de l’Environnement et des Produits, Département de MicrobiologieFaculté de PharmacieMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.Departamento de Microbiologia y Ecología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de ValenciaBurjassotSpain
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Traitement et de Recyclage des EauxCentre de Recherches et des Technologies des Eaux (CERTE), Technopole de Borj-CédriaSolimanTunisia

Personalised recommendations