Microarray analysis of the microflora of root caries in elderly

  • D. PrezaEmail author
  • I. Olsen
  • T. Willumsen
  • S. K. Boches
  • S. L. Cotton
  • B. Grinde
  • B. J. Paster


The present study used a new 16S rRNA-based microarray with probes for over 300 bacterial species to better define the bacterial profiles of healthy root surfaces and root caries (RC) in the elderly. Supragingival plaque was collected from 20 healthy subjects (Controls) and from healthy and carious roots and carious dentin from 21 RC subjects (Patients). Collectively, 179 bacterial species and species groups were detected. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in Controls than in Patients. Lactobacillus casei/paracasei/rhamnosus and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus were notably associated with most RC samples. Streptococcus mutans was detected more frequently in the infected dentin than in the other samples, but the difference was not significant. Actinomyces was found more frequently in Controls. Thus, species other than Actinomyces and S. mutans may play a role as pathogens of RC. The results from this study were in general agreement with those of our previous study based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing.


Lactobacillus Sample Category Plaque Sample Carious Dentin Bacterial Profile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank the Cathinka Guldberg-Centre in Oslo, Norway, particularly Marianne Wenaasen and Sabah Tariq for patient management. We are very thankful to Professor Leiv Sandvik for his statistical advice. The study was supported by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway and NIH grant DE11443 (B.J.P.).

Supplementary material

10096_2008_662_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (268 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 268 KB)


  1. 1.
    Fure S (1998) Five-year incidence of caries, salivary and microbial conditions in 60-, 70- and 80-year-old Swedish individuals. Caries Res 32:166–174 doi: 10.1159/000016449 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Imazato S, Ikebe K, Nokubi T, Ebisu S, Walls AW (2006) Prevalence of root caries in a selected population of older adults in Japan. J Oral Rehabil 33:137–143 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2006.01547.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saunders RH Jr, Meyerowitz C (2005) Dental caries in older adults. Dent Clin North Am 49:293–308 doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2004.10.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petersen PE, Yamamoto T (2005) Improving the oral health of older people: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 33:81–92 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2004.00219.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fejerskov O, Baelum V, Ostergaard ES (1993) Root caries in Scandinavia in the 1980’s and future trends to be expected in dental caries experience in adults. Adv Dent Res 7:4–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ravald N (1994) Root surface caries. Curr Opin Periodontol ▪▪▪:78–86Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zambon JJ, Kasprzak SA (1995) The microbiology and histopathology of human root caries. Am J Dent 8:323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    van Houte J, Lopman J, Kent R (1994) The predominant cultivable flora of sound and carious human root surfaces. J Dent Res 73:1727–1734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nascimento MM, Hofling JF, Goncalves RB (2004) Streptococcus mutans genotypes isolated from root and coronal caries. Caries Res 38:454–463 doi: 10.1159/000079627 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bowden GH, Nolette N, Ryding H, Cleghorn BM (1999) The diversity and distribution of the predominant ribotypes of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 in samples from enamel and from healthy and carious root surfaces of teeth. J Dent Res 78:1800–1809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silwood CJ, Lynch EJ, Seddon S, Sheerin A, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC (1999) 1H-NMR analysis of microbial-derived organic acids in primary root carious lesions and saliva. NMR Biomed 12:345–356 doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199910)12:6<345::AID-NBM580>3.0.CO;2-CPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banerjee A, Yasseri M, Munson M (2002) A method for the detection and quantification of bacteria in human carious dentine using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. J Dent 30:359–363 doi: 10.1016/S0300-5712(02)00052-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Byun R, Nadkarni MA, Chhour KL, Martin FE, Jacques NA, Hunter N (2004) Quantitative analysis of diverse Lactobacillus species present in advanced dental caries. J Clin Microbiol 42:3128–3136 doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.7.3128-3136.2004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chhour KL, Nadkarni MA, Byun R, Martin FE, Jacques NA, Hunter N (2005) Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in advanced caries. J Clin Microbiol 43:843–849 doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.843-849.2005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Munson MA, Banerjee A, Watson TF, Wade WG (2004) Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries. J Clin Microbiol 42:3023–3029 doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.7.3023-3029.2004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nadkarni MA, Caldon CE, Chhour KL, Fisher IP, Martin FE, Jacques NA, Hunter N (2004) Carious dentine provides a habitat for a complex array of novel Prevotella-like bacteria. J Clin Microbiol 42:5238–5244 doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.11.5238-5244.2004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Preza D, Olsen I, Aas JA, Willumsen T, Grinde B, Paster BJ (2008) Bacterial profiles of root caries in elderly patients. J Clin Microbiol 46:2015–2021 doi: 10.1128/JCM.02411-07 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    HOMIM (2008) posting date. [Online]
  19. 19.
    Paster BJ, Boches SK, Galvin JL, Ericson RE, Lau CN, Levanos VA, Sahasrabudhe A, Dewhirst FE (2001) Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J Bacteriol 183:3770–3783 doi: 10.1128/JB.183.12.3770-3783.2001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paster BJ, Olsen I, Aas JA, Dewhirst FE (2006) The breadth of bacterial diversity in the human periodontal pocket and other oral sites. Periodontol 2000 42:80–87 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2006.00174.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    WHO (1997) Oral health surveys: basic methods. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Preza
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. Olsen
    • 1
  • T. Willumsen
    • 2
  • S. K. Boches
    • 4
  • S. L. Cotton
    • 4
  • B. Grinde
    • 1
    • 3
  • B. J. Paster
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Oral Biology, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Gerodontology, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of Molecular GeneticsThe Forsyth InstituteBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and ImmunityHarvard School of Dental MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations