Advertisement

Trichomonas vaginalis harboring Mycoplasma hominis increases cytopathogenicity in vitro

  • R. G. Vancini
  • A. Pereira-Neves
  • R. Borojevic
  • M. BenchimolEmail author
Article

Abstract

The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in humans. Mycoplasmas are frequently found with trichomonads but the consequences of this association are not yet known. In the present study, the effects of T. vaginalis harboring M. hominis on human vaginal epithelial cells and on MDCK cells are described. The results were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as using cell viability assays. There was an increase in the cytopathic effects on the epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis associated with M. hominis compared to T. vaginalis alone. The epithelial cells exhibited an increase in the intercellular spaces, a lesser viability, and increased destruction provoked by the infected T. vaginalis. In addition, the trichomonads presented a higher amoeboid transformation rate and an intense phagocytic activity, characteristics of higher virulence behavior.

Keywords

Trichomonas vaginalis Mycoplasmas Vaginal epithelial cells Cytopathogenicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Juliana Leal and Renata Martucci (PABCAM) for technical assistance in the work of hVEC cultures. This work was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Programa de Núcleos de Excelência (PRONEX), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES) and Associação Universitária Santa Úrsula (AUSU).

References

  1. 1.
    Krieger JN (1990) Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of urogenital trichomoniasis in men, In: Honigberg BM (ed) Trichomonads parasitic in humans. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 235–245Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pindak FF, William A, Gardner JR, Mora de Pindak M (1986) Growth and cytopathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis in tissue cultures. J Clin Microbiol 23:672–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt K, Garber G (1998) Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol 11:300–317Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guenthner PC, Secor WE, Dezzutti CS (2005) Trichomonas vaginalis-induced epithelial monolayer disruption and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication: implications for sexual transmission of HIV-1. Infect Immun 73:4155–4160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sorvillo L, Smith L, Kerndt P, Ash L (2001) Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, and African-Americans. Emerg Infect Dis 7:927–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Viikki M, Pukkala E, Nieminen P, Hakama M (2000) Gynaecologcal infections as risk determinants of subsequent cervical neoplasia. Acta Oncol 39:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nielsen MH, Nielsen R (1975) Electron microscopy of Trichomonas vaginalis Donné: Interaction with vaginal epithelium in human trichomoniasis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Sect 83:305–320Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scholtyseck E, Teras J, Kasakova I, Sethi KK (1985) Electron microscopy observations on the interaction of Mycoplasma fermentans with Trichomonas vaginalis. Z Parasitenkd 71:432–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baseman JB, Lange M, Criscimagna NL, Giron JA, Thomas CA (1995) Interplay between mycoplasmas and host target cells. Microb Pathog 19:105–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dallo SF, Baseman JB (2000) Intracellular DNA replication and long-term survival of pathogenic mycoplasmas. Microb Pathog 29:301–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Taylor-Robinson D, Davies HA, Sarathchandra P, Furr PM (1991) Intracellular location of mycoplasmas in cultured cells demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Int J Exp Pathol 72:705–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rappeli P, Carta F, Delogu G, Addis MF, Dessi D, Cappucinelli P, Fiori PL (2001) Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonas vaginalis symbiosis: multiplicity of infection and transmissibility of M. hominis to human cells. Arch Microbiol 175:70–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dessi D, Delogu G, Emonte E, Catania MR, Fiori PL, Rappelli P (2005) Long-term survival and intracellular replication of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis cells: potential role of the protozoon in transmitting bacterial infection. Infect Immun 73:1180–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xiao JC, Xie LF, Fang SL, Gao MY, Zhu Y, Song LY, Zhong HM, Lun ZR (2006) Symbiosis of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis may link metronidazole resistance in vitro. Parasitol Res 100:123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gilbert RO, Elia G, Beach DH, Klaessig S, Sing BN (2000) Cytopathogenic effects of Trichomonas vaginalis on human vaginal epithelial cells cultured in vitro. Infect Immun 68:4200–4206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diamond LS (1957). The establishment of various trichomonads of animals and man in axenic cultures. J Parasitol 43:488–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vancini RG, Benchimol M (2007) Entry and intracellular location of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis. Arch Microbiol DOI  10.1007/s00203-007-0288-8
  18. 18.
    Pereira-Neves A, Benchimol M (2007) Phagocytosis by Trichomonas vaginalis: new insights. Biol Cell 99:87–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silva-Filho FC, DeSouza W (1988) The interaction of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with epithelial cells in vitro. Cell Struct Funct 13:301–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    González-Robles A, Lazaro-Haller A, Espinosa-Castellano M, Anaya-Velazquez, Martinez-Palomo FA (1995) Trichomonas vaginalis: ultrastructural bases of the cytopathic effect. J Euk Microb 42:641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alderete JF, Garza GE (1985) Specific nature of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitism of host cell surfaces. Infect Immun 50:701–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rotten S, Naot Y (1998) Subversion and exploitation of host cells by mycoplasmas. Trends Microbiol 6:436–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fichorova RN, Desai PJ, Gibson FC, Genco CA (2001) Distinct proinflammatory host responses to Neisseria gonorrhea infection in immortalized human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 69:5840–5848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rajan N, Pruden DL, Kaznari H, Cao Q, Anderson BE, Duncan JL, Schaeffer AJ (2000) Characterization of an immortalized human vaginal epithelial cell line. J Urol 163:616–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krieger JN, Ravdin JN, Rein MF (1985) Contact-dependent cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Immun 50:768–770Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heath JP (1981) Behavior and pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis in epithelial cell cultures: a study by light and scanning electron microscopy. Br J Vener Dis 57:106–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arroyo R, González-Robles A, Martínez-Palomo A, Alderete JF (1993) Signaling of Trichomonas vaginalis for amoeboid transformation and adhesin synthesis follows cytoadherence. Mol Microbiol 7:299–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Juliano C, Cappuccinelli P, Mattana A (1991) In vitro phagocytic interaction between Trichomonas vaginalis isolates and bacteria. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10:497–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rendón-Maldonado JG, Espinosa-Cantellano M, González-Robles A, Martínez-Palomo A (1998) Trichomonas vaginalis: in vitro phagocytosis of lactobacilli, vaginal epithelial cells, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. Exp Parasitol 89:241–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cirillo JD, Falkows S, Tompkims LS, Bermudez LE (1997) Interaction of Mycobacterium avium with environmental amoebae enhances virulence. Infec Immun 65:3759–3767Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maul GG, Negorev D, Bell P, Ishov AM (2000) Properties and assembly mechanisms of ND10, PML bodies, or PODs. J Struct Biol 129:278–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Vancini
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Pereira-Neves
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Borojevic
    • 1
  • M. Benchimol
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências MorfológicasUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Ultraestrutura CelularUniversidade Santa ÚrsulaRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Rio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations