VIM-2 metallo-β-lactamase in Achromobacter xylosoxidans in Europe

  • D. Sofianou
  • A. Markogiannakis
  • E. Metzidie
  • S. Pournaras
  • A. TsakrisEmail author
Brief Report

During the last decade, acquired metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) have started to emerge among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and other gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. The enzymes readily hydrolyse all β-lactam agents except monobactams and are encoded by genes carried in class 1 integrons [1]. Two major groups of acquired MBLs, the IMP and VIM enzymes, have been identified in gram-negative species; more than 15 different IMP allelic variants have been detected, while the 11 VIM allelic variants that have been identified up to now are divided into the three major amino acid sequence subgroups VIM-1, VIM-2 and VIM-7 (http:\\studies\other.asp). blaIMP genes have been described mainly in Japan but also in other Asian countries and some European and American regions, while blaVIM genes have been detected mostly in Mediterranean countries of Europe and several Far East regions [1].

Achromobacter xylosoxidans (synonym: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans) is an opportunistic gram-negative...


Imipenem Colistin Netilmicin Conjugational Transfer Pleural Empyema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Walsh TR, Toleman MA, Poirel L, Nordmann P (2005) Metallo-β-lactamases: the quiet before the storm? Clin Microbiol Rev 18:306–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn Jr WC (1997) Color atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology. 5th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, New York p 253–309Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gomez-Cerezo J, Suarez I, Rios JJ, Pena P, Garcia de Miguel MJ, de Jose M, Monteagudo O, Linares P, Barbado-Cano A, Vazquez JJ (2003) Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia: a 10-year analysis of 54 cases. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:360–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kanellopoulou M, Pournaras S, Iglezos H, Skarmoutsou N, Papafrangas E, Maniatis AN (2004) Persistent colonization of nine cystic fibrosis patients with an Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans clone. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:336–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Senda K, Arakawa Y, Ichiyama S, Nakashima K, Ito H, Ohsuka S, Shimokata K, Kato N, Ohta M (1996) PCR detection of metallo-beta-lactamase gene (bla IMP) in Gram-negative rods resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactams. J Clin Microbiol 34:2909–2913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shibata N, Doi Y, Yamane K, Yagi T, Kurokawa H, Shibayama K, Kato H, Kai K, Arakawa Y (2003) PCR typing of genetic determinants for metallo-β-lactamases and integrases carried by Gram-negative bacteria isolated in Japan, with focus on the class 3 integron. J Clin Microbiol 41:5407–5413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iyobe S, Kusadokoro H, Takahashi A, Yomoda S, Okubo T, Nakamura A, O’Hara K (2002) Detection of a variant metallo-β-lactamase, IMP-10, from two unrelated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an Alcaligens xylosoxidans strain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2014–2016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Riccio ML, Pallecchi L, Fontana R, Rossolini GM (2001) In70 of plasmid pAX22, a bla VIM-1-containing integron carrying a new aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene cassette. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1249–1253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (2000) Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved standard M7-A5. NCCLS, Wayne, PAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsakris A, Pournaras S, Woodford N, Palepou M-FI, Babini GS, Douboyas J, Livermore DM (2000) Outbreak of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing VIM-1 carbapenemase in Greece. J Clin Microbiol 38:1290–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yan J-J, Hsueh P-R, Ko W-C, Luh K-T, Tsai S-H, Wu H-M, Wu J-J (2001) Metallo-β-lactamases in clinical Pseudomonas isolates in Taiwan and identification of VIM-3, a novel variant of the VIM-2 enzyme. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2224–2228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pournaras S, Maniati M, Petinaki E, Tzouvelekis LS, Tsakris A, Legakis NJ, Maniatis AN (2003) Hospital outbreak of multiple clones of Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying the unrelated metallo-β-lactamase gene variants bla VIM-2 and bla VIM-4. J Antimicrob Chemother 51:1409–1414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Sofianou
    • 1
  • A. Markogiannakis
    • 2
  • E. Metzidie
    • 1
  • S. Pournaras
    • 3
  • A. Tsakris
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyHippokration General HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences, School of Health SciencesUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of Medical MicrobiologyUniversity of ThessaliaLarissaGreece

Personalised recommendations