Epidemiology of Candidaemia in Europe: Results of 28-Month European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) Hospital-Based Surveillance Study

  • A. M. Tortorano
  • J. Peman
  • H. Bernhardt
  • L. Klingspor
  • C. C. Kibbler
  • O. Faure
  • E. Biraghi
  • E. Canton
  • K. Zimmermann
  • S. Seaton
  • R. Grillot
  • the ECMM Working Group on Candidaemia


In order to update the epidemiological and mycological profile of candidaemia in Europe, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology conducted a prospective, sequential, hospital population-based study from September 1997 to December 1999. A total of 2,089 cases were documented by 106 institutions in seven European countries. Rates of candidaemia ranging from 0.20 to 0.38 per 1,000 admissions were reported. Candida albicans was identified in 56% of cases. Non-albicans Candida species were most frequently isolated from patients with haematological malignancies (65%). With increasing age, an increasing incidence of Candida glabrata was seen. The 30-day mortality rate was 37.9%. The survey results underline the burden of candidaemia in a wide range of patient populations, confirm the importance of non-albicans species, and provide baseline data for future surveillance studies at a European level.


Candida Albicans Invasive Candidiasis Candida Tropicalis Candida Glabrata Candida Parapsilosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The ECMM Working Group consists of the following members:

France: M.-F. Biava, L. Kures, CHU Nancy; M.-E. Bougnoux, CHU Ambroise-Paré, Paris; B. Bouteille, CHU Limoges; S. Bretagne, CHU Henri Mondor, Paris Créteil; B. Cuisenier, CHU Dijon; A. Datry, CHU Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris; C. De Champs, M. Cambon, CHU Clermont-Ferrand; C. Duhamel, CHU Caen; J. Dupouy-Camet, CHU Cochin, Paris; J.-P. Gangneux, CHU Rennes; C. Kauffmann-Lacroix, CHU Poitiers; O. Eloy, CHR Versailles; J. Fruit, B. Sendid, CHU Lille; I. Grawey, CHR Colmar; G. Kac, CHU Tenon, Paris; L. Lachaud, CHU Nîmes; V. Lavarde, CHU Broussais, Paris; B. Lebeau, CHU Grenoble; M.-D. Linas, CHU Rangueuil, Toulouse; O. Morin, CHU Nantes; G. Nevez, CHU Amiens; J.-L. Poirot, CHU Saint-Antoine; H. Raberin, CHU Saint-Etienne, Paris; P. Rispail, CHU Montpellier, Paris; D. Toubas-Puygauthier, CHU Reims, Paris.

Austria: D. Sissolak, Dept. Clin. Microbiology, Vienna; B. Willinger, Dept. Clin. Microbiology, Vienna; A. Grisold, Inst. Hygiene-Microbiology, Graz; F. Asboth, Path-Bact. Institute, Vienna.

Germany: H. Schütt-Gerowitt, Inst. Med. Microbiology, Köln; G. Schröder, Inst. Med. Microbiology, Greifswald; R. Enzensberger, Dept. Clin. Microbiology, Frankfurt a. M; L. Leitritz, Max v. Pettenkofer-Institute, Munich; M. Weig, Inst. Hygiene-Microbiology, Würzburg; G. Berns, Inst. Med. Microbiology, Dusseldorf; M. Seewald, Inst. Med. Diagnostic, Berlin; E. Ziegler, Inst. Pathology Barmherzigen Schwestern v. Hl. Kreuz, Wels; R. Rüchel, Inst. Hygiene, Göttingen; S. Burkhardt, Inst. Med. Microbiology, Munich; B. Sommer, Community Lab. Medicine, Potsdam; B. Graf, Inst. Microbiology-Hygiene (Charité), Berlin; B. Jahn, Inst. Microbiology- Hygiene, Mainz; L. Meyer, Children’s Clinic, Mainz.

Italy: C. Agrappi, Ospedale, Legnano; M. Arghittu, Ospedale Predabissi, Melegnano; A. Astolfi, Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Milan; C. Bezzi, Ospedale, Magenta; C. Bonaccorso, Ospedale Sacco, Milan; S. Bramati, Ospedale S. Gerardo, Monza; P. Casella, Ospedale, Vimercate; C. Cavanna, IRCCS Ospedale San Matteo, Pavia; A. Ceraminiello, Ospedale, Lodi; L. Colombo, Ospedale, Desio; C. Farina, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo; L. Ferrari, Istituti Ospedalieri, Cremona; S. Frugoni, Pio Albergo Triulzio, Milan; L. Garlaschi, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan; G. Gialluca, Ospedale, Rho; A. Grossi, Ospedale, Treviglio; S. Gualterotti, Ospedale Bassini, Cinisello Balsamo; G. Lombardi, Ospedale Circolo, Varese; A. Mauri, Ospedale S. Paolo, Milan; M.G. Musmanno, Ospedale, Saronno; C. Ossi, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan; R. Passerini, Istituto Europeo Oncologia, Milan; S. Perin, Ospedale S. Carlo, Milan; S. Pierdomenico, Ospedale, Busto Arsizio; G. Pinsi, Spedali Civili, Brescia; P. Porri, Ospedale, Voghera; A. Raballo, Ospedale Poma, Mantova; A. Rigoni, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milan; R. Sala, Ospedale, Merate; M. Saudelli, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli, Milan; M. Spinelli, Ospedale S. Anna, Como; C. Sturla, Ospedale S. Antonio, Gallarate; M. Tejada, Istituto Policlinico S. Donato, S. Donato Milanese; P. Troupioti, Ospedale, Sondalo; G. Viola, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan; A. Lizioli, L. Merlino, Regione Lombardia, Direzione Generale Sanità.

Spain: A. Viudes, H. LaFe, Valencia; A. Planes, H. Vall dHebrón, Barcelona; E. Cañas, H. Virgen Rocío, Seville; A. del Palacio, H. 12deOctubre, Madrid; J. Sevillano, C M Povisa, Vigo; J. Viñuelas, H. S Pedro de Alcántara, Cáceres; M. Elía, H. U., Elche; M. Giménez, H. Germans, Trías i Pujol; M. Pazo, H. Carlos Haya, Málaga; J.J. García, H. de Navarra, Pamplona; J.J. Palomar, H. General, Albacete; J.M. Hernández-Molina, H. La Inmaculada, Huercal-Overa; E. Mínguez, H. Canalejo, A Coruña; J.A. Martínez, H. Clinic, Barcelona; I. Fernández, H. de León, León; J. Martínez, H. Virgen de la Salud, Toledo; M.J. Tapiol, H. Joan XXIII, Tarragona; M.S. Cuétara, H. Severo Ochoa, Leganés; S. Giner, H. Dr Moliner, Bétera.

Sweden: E. Törnquist, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro; B. Petrini, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm; U. Forsum, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping; G. Hedin, Central Hospital, Västerås.

UK: R.A. Barnes, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff; W.R. Gransden, Guys and St Thomas’s Hospital, London; R.E. Holliman, St Georges Hospital, London; J.D. Perry, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne; J.A. Wilson, Hull PHLS, Hull.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Tortorano
    • 1
  • J. Peman
    • 2
  • H. Bernhardt
    • 3
  • L. Klingspor
    • 4
  • C. C. Kibbler
    • 5
  • O. Faure
    • 6
  • E. Biraghi
    • 1
  • E. Canton
    • 2
  • K. Zimmermann
    • 3
  • S. Seaton
    • 5
  • R. Grillot
    • 6
  • the ECMM Working Group on Candidaemia
    • 7
  1. 1.Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Università degli StudiIRCCS Ospedale MaggioreMilanItaly
  2. 2.Servicio de MicrobiologiaHospital La FeValenciaSpain
  3. 3.Clinic of Internal Medicine A and Loeffler-Institute of Medical MicrobiologyErnst Moritz Arndt Universitat GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Karolinska InstitutetHuddinge University HospitalHuddingeSweden
  5. 5.Department of Medical MicrobiologyRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK
  6. 6.Service de Parasitologie-MycologieCentre Hospitalier UniversitaireGrenoble Cedex 9France
  7. 7.c/o R. Grillot, Convenor of the Survey, Service de Parasitologie-MycologieCentre Hospitalier UniversitaireGrenoble Cedex 9France

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