Shift of the Tick Ixodes ricinus and Tick-Borne Encephalitis to Higher Altitudes in Central Europe

  • M. DanielEmail author
  • V. Danielová
  • B. Kříž
  • A. Jirsa
  • J. Nožička
Brief Report

In the last decade a significant increase in the number of cases of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been registered in the Czech Republic [1]. Roughly, this increase could be characterized as twofold for the 1993–2001 period compared with the 1984–1992 period (5,240 vs. 2,441 cases). A similar increase in the incidence of human TBE has been observed in some other European countries during the 1990s, as reported on the website

The increase in the incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic has been manifested in three ways: (i) a higher number of cases in areas well known for TBE in humans [1]; (ii) a re-emergence of TBE in areas where it had previously occurred but had not or only sporadically been observed since the 1970s [2], or (iii) the emergence of TBE in places where it had not been known to occur previously.

TBE is notoriously dependent on the presence of the major vector of the virus, the Ixodes ricinustick. In Central...


Czech Republic High Altitude Small Mammal Developmental Cycle Ixodes Ricinus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Daniel
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. Danielová
    • 1
  • B. Kříž
    • 1
  • A. Jirsa
    • 2
  • J. Nožička
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Public HealthPrague 10Czech Republic
  2. 2.Administration of Šumava National ParkVimperkCzech Republic
  3. 3.District Public Health CentrePrachaticeCzech Republic

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