Advertisement

Load sharing and weakest lamina effects on the compressive resistance of cross-laminated timber under in-plane loading

Original Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

A new approach was developed to predict the compressive resistance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) using the compressive strength of small samples of different grade lamina from E12 and E8 larch, and E10 and E6 nut pine. CLT of three different thicknesses was manufactured using different grades of laminas from each species. To evaluate the compressive resistance of CLT, three different methods were employed. The first method was used to determine the compressive resistance, which was predicted by multiplying the compressive strength of lamina aligned with the loading direction, and the cross-sectional areas of the lamina. The second method is similar to the first method, but additionally considering the stiffness ratio of the laminas. The third method developed from the current study accounts for load sharing and weakest lamina effects in the prediction of compressive resistance. When the lower 5th percentile compressive resistance in a major direction was predicted using the first two methods, the difference between the experimental test and the predicted value ranged from 2.5 to 43.4%. However, when the compressive resistance in a major direction was predicted using the developed method from the current study, the difference between the experimental test and predicted value ranged from − 8.7 to 10.8%.

Keywords

Compressive resistance Cross-laminated timber Load sharing Weakest lamina In plane 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was carried out with the support of ‘Forest Science & Technology Projects (Project No. 2017051B101719BB02)’ provided by Korea Forest Service.

References

  1. 1.
    CTBUH (2017) Tall buildings in numbers, tall timber: a global audit. Council on tall buildings and urban habitat. http://www.ctbuh.org. Accessed 29 Jan 2018
  2. 2.
    Brandner R, Flatscher G, Ringhofer A, Schickhofer G, Thiel A (2016) Cross laminated timber (CLT): overview and development. Eur J Wood Prod 74:331–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Serrano E, Enquist B (2010) Compression strength perpendicular to grain in cross-laminated timber (CLT). In: 11th World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2010), Riva del GardaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bogensperger T, Augustin M, Schickhofer G (2011) Properties of CLT-panels exposed to compression perpendicular to their plane. In: 44th CIB-W18 Meeting, AlgheroGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brandner R, Schickhofer G (2014) Properties of cross laminated timber (CLT) in compression perpendicular to grain. In: 1st INTER-Meeting, BathGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barrett JD, Lau W (1994) Canadian lumber properties. Canadian Wood Council, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karacabeyli E, Douglas B (2013) Chapter 3 structural. In: CLT handbook: cross-laminated timber US edition. FPInnovations, Pointe-Claire, p5Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oh JK, Lee JJ, Hong JP (2015) Prediction of compressive strength of cross-laminated timber panel. J Wood Sci 61:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wallner-Novak M, Koppelhuber J, Pock K (2014) Cross-laminated timber structural design—basic design and engineering principles according to Eurocode. proHolzAustria, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    APA (2012) Standard for performance-rated cross-laminated timber. ANSI/APA PRG 320–2012. APA—The Engineered Wood Association. Tacoma, WA, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    MAFF Notification No. 3079 of 20 December (2013) Japanese Agricultural Standard for cross laminated timber. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), TokyoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    KS F 3021:2013 (2013) Structural glued laminated timber. Korean agency for technology and standards, Chungcheongbuk-doGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASTM D143-14 (2014) Standard test methods for small clear specimens of timber. American society for testing and materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ASTM D198-14 (2014) Standard methods of static tests of lumber in structural sizes. American society for testing and materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee JJ, Kim GC, Kim KM, Oh JK (2003) Distribution characteristics of bending properties for visual graded lumber of Japanese larch. J Korean Wood Sci Technol 31:72–79Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Park CY, Pang SJ, Park JS, Kim KM, Park MJ, Lee JJ (2010) Study of the distribution properties and LRFD code conversion in Japanese larch. J Korean Wood Sci Technol 38:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pang SJ, Oh JK, Park CY, Park JS, Park MJ, Lee JJ (2011) Characteristics evaluation of bending strength distributions on revised Korean visual grading rule. J Korean Wood Sci Technol 39:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pang SJ, Park JS, Hwang KH, Jeong GY, Park MJ, Lee JJ (2011) Bending strength of Korean softwood species for 120 × 180 mm structural members. J Korean Wood Sci Technol 39:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pang SJ, Oh JK, Hong JP, Lee SJ, Lee JJ (2018) Stochastic model for predicting the bending strength of glued-laminated timber based on the knot area ratio and localized MOE in lamina. J Wood Sci 64:126–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cramer SM, Wolfe RW (1989) Load-distribution model for light-frame wood roof assemblies. J Struct Eng 115:2603–2616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Green DW, Kretschmann DE (2007) Lumber property relationships for engineering design standards. Wood Fiber Sci 23:436–456Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kassimali A, Craddock JN, Matinrad M (1986) Bending and transverse shear stresses in fiber-composite beams by the transformed-section method. Compos Struct 5:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kassimali A, Craddock JN, Wigell GA, Abbasnia R (1986) Transformed-section model for composite beams based on axial stiffness. J Struct Eng 112:2235–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Wood Science and EngineeringChonnam National UniversityGwangjuSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations