Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 364–376

# Numerical analysis on tensile performance of bolted glulam joints with initial local cracks

• Jing Zhang
• Min-Juan He
• Zheng Li
Original Article

## Abstract

Under varying climate conditions, cracks are commonly observed in bolted joints, owing to the shrinkage of wood and confinement from slotted-in steel plates and bolts. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the mechanical behavior of bolted glulam joints with initial cracks. Wood foundation was prescribed in the model to simulate the local crushing behavior of wood surrounding the bolts. The behavior of wood in compression and the foundation were defined as transversely isotropic plastic in the software package ANSYS. Cohesive zone model was applied in the numerical analysis to consider the propagation of initial cracks and brittle failure of wood in the bolted joints under tension load. The numerical model was validated by the experiments conducted on full-scale specimens and it is indicated that the numerical model has good ability in predicting the failure modes and capacity of tension joints with local cracks. To further investigate the influence of crack number, length and locations, a parametric study was conducted with the verified model. Moreover, to study the effects of cracks on the behavior of bolted joints with different failure modes, another bolted joint including bolts with different strength grades and diameters was designed and analyzed in the parametric study, which was expected to have bolt yielding failure mode. It was found that the initial cracks can decrease the capacity and initial stiffness of tension joints by up to 16.5 and 34.8%, respectively.

## Keywords

Bolted glulam joints Crack Numerical analysis Cohesive zone model Parametric study

## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFC0703507) for supporting this research.

## References

1. 1.
Xu BH, Taazount M, Bouchaïr A, Racher P (2009) Numerical 3D finite element modelling and experimental tests for dowel-type timber joints. Constr Build Mater 23(9):3043–3052
2. 2.
EN 1995-1-1 (2004) Eurocode 5—design of timber structures—part 1–1: general—common rules and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
3. 3.
Gattesco N, Toffolo I (2004) Experimental study on multiple-bolt steel-to-timber tension joints. Mater Struct 37(2):129–138
4. 4.
Mischler A, Prion H, Lam F (2000) Load-carrying behaviour of steel-to-timber dowel connections. In: Proceedings of world conference of timber engineering, British Columbia, CanadaGoogle Scholar
5. 5.
Mohammad M, Quenneville J (1999) Behaviour of wood-steel-wood bolted glulam connections. CIB-W18Google Scholar
6. 6.
Pedersen MBU, Clorius CO, Damkilde L, Hoffmeyer P, Eskildsen L (1999) Dowel type connections with slotted-in steel plates. CIB-W18 Timber Structures, Universitet Karlsruhe, pp 1–17Google Scholar
7. 7.
Audebert M, Dhima D, Taazount M, Bouchaïr A (2011) Numerical investigations on the thermo-mechanical behavior of steel-to-timber joints exposed to fire. Eng Struct 33(12):3257–3268
8. 8.
Guan ZW, Zhu EC (2009) Finite element modelling of anisotropic elasto-plastic timber composite beams with openings. Eng Struct 31(2):394–403
9. 9.
Racher P, Laplanche K, Dhima D, Bouchaïr A (2010) Thermo-mechanical analysis of the fire performance of dowelled timber connection. Eng Struct 32(4):1148–1157
10. 10.
Kharouf N, McClure G, Smith I (2003) Elasto-plastic modeling of wood bolted connections. Computers structures 81(8):747–754
11. 11.
Moses DM, Prion HGL (2003) A three-dimensional model for bolted connections in wood. Can J Civ Eng 30(3):555–567
12. 12.
Xu BH, Bouchaïr A, Taazount M, Racher P (2013) Numerical simulation of embedding strength of glued laminated timber for dowel-type fasteners. J Wood Sci 59(1):17–23
13. 13.
Patton-Mallory M, Pellicane PJ, Smith FW (1998) Qualitative assessment of failure in bolted connections: Tsai-Wu criterion. Journal of testing evaluation 26(5):497–505
14. 14.
Patton-Mallory M, Pellicane PJ, Smith FW (1997) Modeling bolted connections in wood. Struct Eng 123(8):1054–1062
15. 15.
Hong JP (2007) Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model for single and multiple dowel-type wood connections. Doctor, University of British Columbia, CanadaGoogle Scholar
16. 16.
Hong JP, Barrett D (2010) Three-dimensional finite-element modeling of nailed connections in wood. Struct Eng 136(6):715–722
17. 17.
Hong JP, Barrett JD, Lam F (2011) Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the Japanese traditional post-and-beam connection. J Wood Sci 57(2):119–125
18. 18.
Coureau JL, Gustafsson PJ, Persson K (2006) Elastic layer model for application to crack propagation problems in timber engineering. Wood Sci Technol 40(4):275–290
19. 19.
Resch E, Kaliske M (2010) Three-dimensional numerical analyses of load-bearing behavior and failure of multiple double-shear dowel-type connections in timber engineering. Comput Struct 88(3):165–177
20. 20.
Alfano G, Crisfield MA (2001) Finite element interface models for the delamination analysis of laminated composites: mechanical and computational issues. Int J Numer Methods Eng 50(7):1701–1736
21. 21.
Camanho PP, Dávila CG (2002) Mixed-mode decohesion finite elements for the simulation of delamination in composite materials. In: NASA/TM-2002–211737. NASA Langley Research Center, pp 1–37Google Scholar
22. 22.
Camanho PP, Davila C, De Moura M (2003) Numerical simulation of mixed-mode progressive delamination in composite materials. J Compos Mater 37(16):1415–1438
23. 23.
Franke B, Quenneville P (2011) Numerical modeling of the failure behavior of dowel connections in wood. J Eng Mech 137(3):186–195
24. 24.
Frühwald Hansson E, Serrano E, Toratti T, Emilsson A, Thelandersson S (2007) Design of safe timber structures (trans: Engineering DoS). How can we learn from structural failures in concrete, steel and timber. Lund Institute of Technology, SwedenGoogle Scholar
25. 25.
Sjödin J, Johansson CJ (2006) Influence of initial moisture induced stresses in multiple steel-to-timber dowel joints. Holz Roh-Werkst 65(1):71–77
26. 26.
Sjödin J (2008) Strength and moisture aspects of steel-timber dowel joints in glulam structures. Doctoral thesis, Växjö University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
27. 27.
GB/T 3098-2000 (2000) Mechanical properties of fasteners bolts, screws and studs (in Chinese). Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
28. 28.
Saliklis EP, Urbanik T, Tokyay B (2003) Bilinear modelling of cellulosic orthotropic nonlinear materials. J Pulp Paper Sci 29:407–411Google Scholar
29. 29.
Jensen JL, Quenneville P (2009) Fracture mechanics analysis of row shear failure in dowelled timber connections. Wood Sci Technol 44(4):639–653
30. 30.
ASTM (2012) Standard test methods for mechanical fasteners in wood. vol D1761–12. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
31. 31.
Jorissen AJM (1998) Double shear timber connections with dowel type fasteners. Delft University Press, DelftGoogle Scholar
32. 32.
McCarthy C, McCarthy M (2005) Three-dimensional finite element analysis of single-bolt, single-lap composite bolted joints: Part II––effects of bolt-hole clearance. Compos Struct 71(2):159–175