Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 327–335 | Cite as

Moisture-induced stresses in engineered wood flooring with OSB substrate

  • Costel Barbuta
  • Pierre Blanchet
  • Alain Cloutier
  • Jean Deteix
  • André Fortin
Original article


Engineered wood flooring (EWF) is a multilayer composite flooring product. The cross layered structure is designed to give good dimensional stability to the EWF under changing environmental conditions. However, during winter season in North America, the indoor relative humidity could decrease dramatically and generate an important cupping deformation. The main objective of this study was to characterize the interlaminar stresses (σ 33, σ 13 and σ 23) distribution at free-edges in EWF made with an OSB substrate. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was used to predict the cupping deformation and to characterize stresses developed in the EWF. The finite element model is based on an unsteady-state moisture transfer equation, a mechanical equilibrium equation and an elastic constitutive law. The physical and mechanical properties of OSB substrate were experimentally determined as a function of the density and moisture content. The simulated EWF deformations were compared against the laboratory observations. For both simulation and experimental results, the cupping deformation of EWF was induced by varying the ambient relative humidity from 50 to 20% at 20°C. A good agreement has been found between the numerical and experimental EWF cupping deformation. The stress distribution fields generated by the model correspond to the delaminations observed on the OSB substrate in the climate room. Delamination in EWF can occur principally under the action of the tension stress or a combination of tension and shear stresses. Finally, simulated results show that the levels of interlaminar stresses are maximal near the free-edges of EWF strips.


Layered structure Delamination Finite element analysis (FEA) Wood testing 


  1. 1.
    Barbuta C, Blanchet P, Cloutier A, Yadama V, Lowell E (2010) Tailor made OSB for special application. Eur J Wood Prod 69:511–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barbuta C, Blanchet P, Cloutier A, Yadama V, Lowell E (2010) OSB substrate for engineered wood flooring. Eur J Wood Prod 70:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cloutier A, Gendron G, Blanchet P, Ganev S, Beauregard R (2001) Finite element modeling of dimensional stability in layered wood composites. In: 35th international particleboard/composite materials symposium. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, pp 63–72Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reddy JN (1993) An introduction to the finite element method, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York, p 684Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blanchet P, Gendron G, Cloutier A, Beauregard R (2005) Numerical prediction of engineered wood flooring deformation. Wood and Fiber Sci 37(3):484–496Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blanchet P, Cloutier A, Gendron G, Beauregard R (2006) Engineered wood flooring design using the finite element method. Forest Prod J 56(5):59–65Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belleville B, Cloutier A, Blanchet P, Deteix J (2008) Wood-adhesive interface characterization and modeling in engineered wood flooring. Wood Fiber Sci 40(4):484–494Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deteix J, Blanchet P, Fortin A, Cloutier A (2008) Finite element modeling of laminate wood composites hygromechanical behavior considering diffusion effects in the adhesive layers. Wood Fiber Sci 40(1):132–143Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ASTM International (2006) Standard methods of evaluating the properties of wood-based fiber and particle panel materials. Standard D 1037-06a. American society of testing and materials, vol 4.10Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jessome AP (2000) Strength and related properties of woods grown in Canada. Forintek Canada Corp. Special Publication SP514E, Canada, p 37Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Siau JF (1995) Wood: influence of moisture on physical properties. Department of Wood Science and Forest Products. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, Virginia, p 227Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goulet M, Fortin Y (1975) Mesure du gonflement de l’érable à sucre au cours d’un cycle de sorption d’humidité à 21°C. Research note no. 12, Département d’Exploitation et Utilisation des Bois, Université Laval, Québec, p 49Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bodig J, Jayne BA (1993) Mechanics of wood and wood composites. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, p 712Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhu EC, Guan Z, Rodd PD, Pope DJ (2005) Constitutive models of OSB and its application in finite element analysis. Holz Roh Werkst 63(2):87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bandrup I, Immergut EH, Grulke EA (1999) Polymer handbook, 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, p 1904Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baïlon JP, Drolet JM (2000) Des Matériaux, 3rd edn. École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, p 740Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Urayama K, Takigawa T, Masuda T (1993) Poisson’s ratio of polyvinyl alcohol gels. Macromolecules 26(12):3092–3096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blanchet P, Beauregard R, Cloutier A, Gendron G, Lefebvre M (2003) Evaluation of various engineered wood flooring constructions. Forest Prod J 53(5):30–37Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wood Handbook: wood as an engineering material (2010) US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest products laboratory, p 508Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moses DM, Prion HGL (2002) Anisotropic plasticity and the notched wood shear block. Forest Prod J 52(6):43–54Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Costel Barbuta
    • 1
  • Pierre Blanchet
    • 1
  • Alain Cloutier
    • 2
  • Jean Deteix
    • 3
  • André Fortin
    • 3
  1. 1.FPInnovationsQuébecCanada
  2. 2.Centre de recherche sur le boisUniversité LavalQuébecCanada
  3. 3.Groupe interdisciplinaire de recherche en éléments finis (GIREF)Université LavalQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations