Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 417–424 | Cite as

Effect of the lateral growth rate on wood properties in fast-growing hardwood species

  • Miho Kojima
  • Hiroyuki YamamotoEmail author
  • Kayo Okumura
  • Yasuhisa Ojio
  • Masato Yoshida
  • Takashi Okuyama
  • Toshihiro Ona
  • Kenji Matsune
  • Kentaro Nakamura
  • Yuji Ide
  • Sri Nugroho Marsoem
  • Mohd Hamami Sahri
  • Yusuf Sudo Hadi
Original Article


We investigated the feasibility of using several fast-growing tropical or subtropical hardwood species for timber production by measuring key wood qualities in relationship to the high rates of lateral growth. The trees tested were sampled from even-aged plantations of Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, hybrid Acacia (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis), Eucalyptus grandis, E. globulus, and Paraserianthes falcataria (Solomon and Java origin) that had already reached commercial harvesting age. The released strain of the surface growth stress (RS), xylem density (XD), microfibril angle (MFA), and fiber length (FL) were measured at the outermost part of the xylem at breast height in each tree. Results were then compared to the lateral growth rate (radius/age) at breast height, which provides a relative indicator of the amount of tree growth per year. Our findings indicated that RS was constant, regardless of lateral growth rate in each species. Similar results were observed for XD, MFA, and FL, with a few exceptions, suggesting that high growth rates do not intrinsically affect the wood properties of fast-growing tropical or subtropical species that have reached harvesting age. However, special attention must be paid to patterns of xylem maturation when developing plantations of such species.

Key words

Paraserianthes falcataria Eucalyptus Acacia Growth stress Tropical Plantation 


  1. 1.
    Brown S, Lugo AE, Chapman J (1986) Biomass of tropical tree plantations and its implications for the global carbon budget. Can J For Res 16:390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zobel BJ (1981) Wood quality from fast-grown plantation. Tappi J 64:71–74Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cossalter C, Pye-Smith C (2003) Fast-wood forestry: myths and realities. Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Malan FS (1988) Relationships between growth stress and some tree characteristics in South African grown Eucalyptus grandis. S Afr For J n144:43–46Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilkins AP, Kitahara R (1991) Relationship between growth strains and rate of growth in 22-year-old Eucalyptus grandis. Aust For 54:95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilkins AP, Kitahara R (1991) Silvicultural treatments and associated growth rates. Growth strains and wood properties in 12.5-year-old Eucalyptus grandis. Aust For 54:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wahyudi I, Okuyama T, Hadi YS, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Watanabe H (1999) Growth stress and strain of Acacia mangium. For Prod J 49:77–81Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wahyudi I, Okuyama T, Hadi YS, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Watanabe H (2000) Relationships between growth rate and growth stresses in Paratherianthes falcataria grown in Indonesia. J Trop For Prod 6:95–105Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kojima M, Yamaji FM, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Nakai T (2009) Effects of the lateral growth rate on wood quality parameters of Eucalyptus grandis sampled from different latitudes in Brazil and Argentina. For Ecol Manag 257:2175–2181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kojima M, Yamamoto H, Marsoem SN, Okuyama T, Yoshida M, Nakai T, Yamashita S, Saegusa K, Matsune K, Nakamura K, Inoue Y, Arizono T (2009) Effects of the lateral growth rate on wood quality parameters of Gmelina arborea sampled from plantations of differing cambium age. Ann For Sci 66: article number 507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kojima M, Yamaji FM, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Saegusa K (2009) Determining factor of xylem maturation in Eucalyptus grandis planted in different latitude and climatic divisions of South America: a view based on fiber length. Can J For Res (in press)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kubler H (1987) Growth stresses in trees and related wood properties. For Prod Abstr 10:61–119Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang JL (2005) The impact of log-end splits and spring on sawn recovery of 32-year-old plantation Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Holz als Roh und Werkstoff 63:442–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okuyama T, Doldan J, Yamamoto H, Ona T (2004) Heart splitting at crosscutting of Eucalyptus grandis logs. J Wood Sci 50:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kollmann FFP, Côté WA Jr (1984) Principles of wood science and technology, vol 1. Springer Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Skaar C (1988) Wood-water relations. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Okuyama T, Kawai A, Kikata Y, Sasaki Y (1983) Growth stresses and uneven gravitational stimulus in trees containing reaction wood. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 29:190–196Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Archer RR (1986) Growth stresses and strains in trees. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sasaki Y, Okuyama T, Kikata Y (1978) The evolution process of the growth stress in the tree: the surface stresses on the tree. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 24:149–157Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okuyama T, Sasaki Y, Kikata Y, Kawai N (1981) The seasonal change in growth stress in the tree trunk. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 27:350–355Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamamoto H, Okuyama T, Iguchi M (1989) Measurement of surface growth stress in a leaning stem. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 35:595–601Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yoshida M, Okuyama T (2002) Technique for measuring growth stress on the xylem surface using strain and dial gauges. Holzforschung 56:461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cave ID (1966) X-ray measurement of microfibril angle. For Prod J 16:37–42Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yamamoto H, Okuyama T, Yoshida M (1993) Method of determining the mean microfibril angle of wood over wide range by the improved Cave’s method. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39:375–381Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okuyama T, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Hattori Y, Archer RR (1994) Growth stresses in tension wood. Role of microfibrils and lignification. Ann Sci For 51:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hillis WE (1973) Defects in fast-growing eucalypts. Paper submitted to Proc. IUFRO V, Working Party 5.01.9, Cape Town, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Washusen R, Llic J, Waugh G (2003) The relationship between longitudinal growth strain and the occurrence of gelatinous fibers in 10- and 11-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Holz als Rohund Werkstoff 61:299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kojima M, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Ojio Y, Okumura K (2009) Maturation property of fast-growing hardwood plantation species: a view of fiber length. For Ecol Manag 257:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haygreen JG., Bowyer JL (1989) Forest products and wood science: an introduction, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Panshin AJ, de Zeeuw C (1971) Textbook of wood technology, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barnett JR, Bonham VA (2004) Cellulose microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres. Biol Rev 79:461–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miho Kojima
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Yamamoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kayo Okumura
    • 1
  • Yasuhisa Ojio
    • 1
  • Masato Yoshida
    • 1
  • Takashi Okuyama
    • 1
  • Toshihiro Ona
    • 2
  • Kenji Matsune
    • 3
  • Kentaro Nakamura
    • 3
  • Yuji Ide
    • 4
  • Sri Nugroho Marsoem
    • 5
  • Mohd Hamami Sahri
    • 6
  • Yusuf Sudo Hadi
    • 7
  1. 1.Graduate School of Bio-agricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityFuro-cho, Chikusa-ku, NagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Bio-resources and Bio-environmental SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  3. 3.Tsukuba Research instituteSumitomo Forestry Co., Ltd.IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Agriculture and Life SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of ForestryGadjah Mada UniversityYogyakartaIndonesia
  6. 6.Faculty of ForestryUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, SelangorMalaysia
  7. 7.Faculty of ForestryInstitut PertanianBogor, BogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations