Sapstain fungi on Pinus radiata logs – from New Zealand Forest to export in Japan
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Supply of clear, unstained logs from an export country is important economically as well as in reducing the biosecurity risk to an importing country such as Japan. Although conditions found within the holds of ships containing logs are thought to be ideal for rapid colonization of sapstain fungi, no research has been conducted. Research-focussed log export trials were designed to determine the extent of sapstain colonisation at specific points in the processing of logs from harvesting to arrival at the export destination. Two trials were established, in the austral summer and winter, in which mature Pinus radiata logs were harvested in New Zealand and shipped to export ports in Japan. Data loggers placed above and below deck of the ships recorded microclimatic conditions. Nine species of sapstain fungi were isolated from logs during the summer trial; the most common species isolated were Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma querci, and Ophiostoma setosum. In contrast, ten sapstain species were detected during the winter trial, with Sphaeropsis sapinea, O. querci, O. floccosum, and O. setosum most commonly isolated. This research was the first successful attempt at measuring visual sapstain development and isolating sapstain fungi from the time of harvesting to arrival at an export destination.
Key wordsSapstain Sphaeropsis sapinea Ophiostoma species New Zealand Pinus radiata Japan
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